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Metal Toxicities

QuestionAnswer
Lead poisoning chelating agents CaNa2EDTA, BAL, penicillamine, succimer. (EDTA can remove Pb from storage faster than bind it so some acute signs of toxicity may appear)
Iron poisoning chelating agent Deforoxamine
Copper poisoning chelating agent penacillamine
Arsenic and gold poisoning chelating agents Succimer, BAL
Mercury poisoning chelating agents Acute - BAL (won't reverse neuronal damage). Chronic - penicillamine, succimer
Thallium poisoning chelating agents prussian blue, dithizone
Calcium poisoning chelating agents EDTA
Cadmium poisoning chelating agents NONE - contraindicated
Inorganic & trivalent Arsenic toxicity GI hemorrhage, capillary damage; inhibit enzymes by blocking -SH groups (reversed by BAL)
pentavalent arsenic toxicity CNS signs (demyelinate), uncouple oxidative phosphorylation
Arsenic toxicity lesions GI irritation/hemorrhage, capillary damage, soft yellow liver
Arsenic toxicity treatment Early (<4 hours)- emetics, purgative, demulcents. Late (>4 hours) - Dimercaprol (BAL), sodium thiosulfate
Arsine (AH3)clinical signs GI effects, intravascular hemolysis, edema, cyanosis, liver dz, delirium, coma
Lead toxicity distribution bound to RBCs, deposited in liver and KIDNEY cortex. Redistributed 95% to bone. Excreted via bile in animals
Lead toxicity signs GI signs, CNS signs, erythrocytic and renal signs take longer to develop. Death in 3-4 days.
Lead toxicity lesions Cadaver odor, dirty red-grey muscle, GI hemorrhage, *acid fast intranuclear bodies in ascending renal tubules*, petichiation on heart, excessive CSF accumulation, congested lungs. Lead line on gingiva, roaring, metaphyseal lead lines in immature dogs
Copper toxicity signs chronic accumulation in liver - released in stress causing hemolysis, necorsis, kidney injury
Copper toxicity lesions gun metal kidneys, blackberry jam spleen, yellow friable liver
Molybdenum toxicity signs poor-doers, diarrhea, hypoproteinemic, achromotrichia, wool problems
Mercury toxicity lesions Elemental mercury accumulates in kidneys (proximal tubules) but primarily neuronal degeneration
Fluoride acceptable levels water: 2ppm, food: 40-50ppm
Flouride toxicity signs Brown, mottled or crumbling teeth, hyperostosis
Iron toxicity MOA injure gut wall, CV collapse, incr. capillary permeability, inactivates oxidative enzymes, metabolic acidosis, shock. LIVER damage!
Cadmium toxicity young more susceptible, stored in liver and kidney as metallothionine. 90% circulating Cd in RBCs!
Cadmium toxicity signs vomiting, pulmonary edema, CNS effects, hyperchromic anemia, bone marrow hyperplasia, hypertension, kidney dz, yellow teeth, chronic pain
Cobalt toxicity "Beer drinkers cardiomyopathy"
Chromium toxicity hexavalent causes nephritis, dermatitis, lung cancer, ulcers on nasal septum (like coke)
Barium toxicity Alone stimulates all muscle types! Use barium sulfate for GI contrast!
Magnesium toxicity CNS depression, curare-like action on NMJ. Treat with Calcium!
Iodine toxicity Increased respiratory tract secretions, cough, lacrimation, ceased egg production, scaly skin over back, neck, eyes, loss of tracheal cilia
Silver toxicity severe gastroenteritis (denatures proteins), treat with NaCl!
Selenium toxicity signs Acute - emesis, diarrhea, fever, depression, spasms, prostration (calves die in 12 hours). Chronic - hair loss, sloughing of hooves, anemia, paralysis in swine
Selenium toxicity lesions Acute -hemorrhagic GI, congestion of liver/kidneys up to focal necrosis. Chronic - emaciation, hair loss, neuronal degeneration (similar to flouride poisoning)
Sulfur toxicity Elemental sulfur is mostly non-toxic, hydrogen sulfide is as toxic as cyanide.
Sulfur toxicity signs Polioencephalomalacia, purgation, colic, depression. No treatment!
Zinc toxicity signs GI distress, emesis, pica, reduced growth, Heinz bodies, pancreatic damage, arthritis, white muscle dz, hemorrhagic kidneys/liver. Icterus if they live long enough...
Chronic zinc toxicity lesions in horses lesions at growth plates, enlarged joints, stiff gait. Treat with EDTA
Created by: ferretinmyshoes