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Packet #2-final

Reproductive/urinary system Dr. C

QuestionAnswer
This is common in puppies and consists of vulvar discharge. Vaginitis
Vaginitis in adults can be caused by? Anatomic abnormalities, bacterial infections, trauma, and chemical reaction.
What virus can cause vaginitis? Herpesvirus
What is pseudocyesis? AKA False pregnancy or psudopregnancy. Development of all the signs of pregnancy without the presence of an embryo.
When do sighns develope and how long do they last? 6-12 weeks after estrus and last 1-3 weeks
This is the quiescent period of a normal estrus cycle. Anestrus
In this phase estrogen rises with serosanguinous vaginal discharge. Proestrus
In this phase FSH is off, LH rises and falls and females are receptive to males. Estrus
In this phase animal gets pregnant and prolactin rises. Diestrus
What can cause prolactin release in a non-pregnant bitch? Falling levels of progesterone
What causes pyometra? Increased progesterone levels after ovulation
What is the most common bacteria found in pyometra? E. Coli
What is Azothemia? Increased BUN and Cr
What is a leukomoid response? Leukocytes above 50,000 without leukemia.
What will a vaginal cytology show with pyometra? Degenerative neutrophils, endometrial cells and bacteria.
What is the best treatment for pyometra? OHE
What tissue needs to be completely removed to resolve pyometra? Ovarian
What is the normal gestation period? 62-65 days
When can you a. palpate fetus in dogs/catsb. see fetus on x-rayc. see fetus with ultrasound a. 21-36 days in dogs, 21-28 days in cats. b. 45 days c. 20 days heart beat only.
what organisms can cause fetal death or abortion? Brucella canis; canine herpesvirus; Feline infectious peritonitis; Felv; FPV (Feline panleukopenia virus).
What is a fetal factor of dystocia? Large fetus; anasarca (extensive SQ edema); hydrocephalus; abnormal positioning (transverse)
What is a maternal factor of dystocia? Narrowed birth canal (developmental or trauma-related); uterine inertia (lack of contractions).
How long before you can diagnose dystocia? 4 hours without delivery
What medical tx can you use to help with dystocia? Oxytocin
If medical tx fails, what is next? Cesarean section
What happens to temperature during paturition? Declines below 100◦F 24 hours before labor begins.
What are mothers responsable for? Keeping neonates warm, groomed and protected
What are some innappropriate maternal behaviors? Increased protective behavior or fear induced behavior and some cannibalize the litters.
This is the most common lactation dosorder? Mastitis
What is it called when there is a lack of milk production? Agalactia
What is galactostasis? Painful engorgement of mammary glands
What can cause agalactia? Stress; malnutrition; premature parturition and infection.
What doses the prostate do for sperm? Produces a fluid used as transport and support medium for sperm.
What are some diseases of the prostrate? BPH ( benign prostatic hyperplasia); cysts; prostatitis; abscesses; neoplasia
What are some signs of prostatic disorders? Tenesmus; prostate palpates symmetrically ( enlarged and nonpainful); disuria
How do you treat prostatic disorders? Castration; results in 70% decrease in size within 7-14 days; low dose estrogen tx (diethylstilbestrol);Finasteride
What is Finasteride? anti-androgen drug, prevents conversion of testosterone to dihydrostestestosterone
What is the downside to treating prostatic disorders with drugs? Only results in temporary improvement; condition will recur once drug tx is discontinued.
What is the prostrate predisposed to? Bacterial infection through the urinary system (E. coli most common, but other pathogens possible
What are the signs of chronic prostatitis? Anorexia, fever, lethargy, stiff gait, caudal (abdominal pain), possible vomiting, urethral discharge, hematuria. Chronic prostatitis may be asymptomatic. Can be associated with abscessation
What would a U/A show with prostatitis? Blood, increased WBC and bacteria
This is a tumor of leyding cells. Interstitial cell tumor
This is a stem cell for sperm. Spermatogonia
What dogs are at greater risk foe testicular tumors? Cryptorchid dogs and dogs with inguinal hernias are at greatest risk
Retained testicles in this region is more risky than abdomen. Inguinal canal
One third of dogs with sertoli tumors exhibit this sign. feminization; bilateral nonprurtic alopecia; mammary development; myelosuppression and hyperestrogenism
When should you perform a blood transfusion? if animal is myelosuppressed
What does myelosuppressed mean? causing nonregenerative anemia, thrombocytopenia
Name an other male neoplasia? prostatic; penile; preputial and scrotal
Many vaginal and vulval tumors are ______ with good prognosis. benign
This is the third most common tumor in cats and most common in female dogs. Mammary neoplasia
What is a lumpectomy and what is its indication? removing the nodule or lump is indicated for small (<0.5cm), firm, superficial nonfixed nodules (usually benign)
What is a mammectomy and what is its indication? removal of one gland for lesions centrally located within the gland, >1.0 cm, and fixed to skin or fascia; skin or fasia; skin or abdomonal wall fascia should br removed
What is a regional mastectomy? removing more than one gland in the mammary chain (depending upon which glands are affected with lumps)
What is a ulilateral or bilateral mastectomy? removing entire mammary chain (one side or both) as a unit if multiple tumors or large tumors involving multiple glands
What is the indication for lymph nodes to be removed. if certain glands are involved, lymph nodes that drain these glands should also be removed
How do you distinguish between benign or malignant? histopathology
FLUTD causes inflammation of lower urinary tract T or F? True
What are some signs of FLUTD? hematuria (frank blood or pink blood); dysuria; stranguria; inappropriate urination; pollakiuria; frequent urination
How do you diagnose FLUTD? Urinalysis; urine culture' survey radiographs may be normal; radiographic contract studies may indicate irregular mucosal lining and thickened bladder wall
What is the drug of choice for FLUTD? Amitriptyline
This is the functional unit of the kidney? nephron
What is the difference between ARF and CFR? ARF decrease in GFR can be due to nephrotoxic drugs. CFR is irreversible and progressive decline in renal function caused by destruction of nephron.
What can cause ARF? Nephrotoxic drugs most commmon ethylene glycol
What are some common signs of renal failurs? polyuria/polydypsia; dullness; lethargy; weakness; anorexia; weight loss; vomiting/diarrhea; gait disturbances (cervical ventroflexion in cats); ocular/retinal problems; sudden blindness and hypertension
Discribe how the blood work will be affected with renal failure. increassed BUN and Creatinine
What is the main treatment for renal failure? supportive care and correction of imbalances
Created by: Brangusc