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ANSC 1000 Exam 3

what hormone stimulates milk "let down"? oxytocin
which of the following is a consequence of "mastitis": destruction of milk producing cells, shelf life of milk reduced, or milk production decrease? ALL OF THE ABOVE
which is of greater value on dairy farms, bull calves or heifer calves? heifer calves
it was mentioned in class several times that alabama has some very elite dairy cows that attract buyers from around the world. What breed are they? Jersey
As explained in class, what trait distinguishes a young lamb carcass from an older mutton carcass? Skeleton integrity
As presented in class, what South American country ranks high in world production of Beef cattle and hides? Brazil
As calculated in the class example, approximatley what percent of a 1000 steer is actually edible? 46%
Which of the following is the highest value wholesale cut from a Beef carcass? Loin
A "kosher" meat might come from where? The front half of a cow
What is an alveolus a spherical cluster of milk producing cells
What term describes the interval between the end of one lactation and giving birth to start another lactation? Dry-period
what term describes the act of waiting two weeks between slaughtering an animal and then processing the resulting carcass? Aging
In addition to burying and burning, what is the third method for disposing of dead animals described in class? Rendering
As described in class, what results from the formula "genotype + environment"? Phenotype
Though it's unfortunate when a pregnant cow is slaughtered by mistake, it results in an additional valuable product being harvested from the process. What is the valuable "by-product" fetal serum
How long does it take to milk an average cow? 6-10 minutes
What is "post-dip"? a treatment barrier placed on teats after milking to prevent bacteria and infection until teat closes
What should be the body conditioning score for a cow in peak production? 2.0
what should be the body conditioning score for a dry cow? 3.5
Colostrum source of immunity from mother to calf in first milk
Inguinal Mammary Glands Cattle, sheep, goats, and horses have them
Pectoral Mammary Glands Primates and Elephants have these
Thorastic/Abdominal Mammary Glands pigs, dogs, and cats, have these
How many teats/glands does a cow have? 4 teats, 4 glands
How many teats/glands does a sheep have? 2 teats 2 glands
How many teats/glands does a mare have? 2 teats, 4 glands
How many teats/glands does a sow have? 10-14 teats and 10-14 glands
In mammary glands, what does progesterone trigger alveoli development
In mammary glands, what does estrogen trigger? duct and cistern development
What age are dairy calves weaned? 6-8 weeks
Terms for red meat from cows veal or beef
veal less than 3 months of age
Beef at least 1 year of age
term for meat from pigs pork
terms for meat from sheep lamb or mutton
lamb meat from a young sheep, determined by skeletal structure
mutton meat from mature sheep
term for goat meat chevon
Country that produces the most meat total China
Country that produces the most pork China
Country that produces the most Beef US
Country that produces the most Mutton/Lamb China
Country that produces the most Goat Meat China
Country that produces the most Buffalo Meat India
Country that produces the most Horse Meat China
Largest meat processing company Tyson Foods, in Springdale Arkansas
High $ Beef Cuts loin and Rib
Lesser $ value Beef Cuts round, chuck, brisket
Low $ Beef cuts shank, shortplate, flank
High $ Pork Cuts Loin, Ham
Lesser $ Pork Cuts Side, Shoulder
Meat consumer trends less beef, more chicken, less pork, more turkey
In grocery stores, meat is about what percentage of sales? 13% of total store sales, and 17% of all food items sold
Meat composition lean (muscle), fate, bone, connective tissue
Muscle Anatomy Lean --> Muscle Bundle --> Muscle Fiber --> Microfibril --> Sarcomere
Sarcomere unit of contraction in muscle
Slaughter process Stun, Exsanguinate, remove hooves head and hide, split in half, remove spinal chord
Edible by products of a steer only 3%, include liver heart and tongue
Inedible by products of a steer 37% , include hide, blood, fetal serum, ponch, and endocrine glands
Hide greater than 30 lb a skin
hide/skin with wool, hair, and fur intact pelt
Blue Hide a hide that has been treated to prevent dehydration
Rendered fats used for candles and soap
Rendered Fatty acids used for cosmetics, deodorants, lubricants, polished, paints
Rendered proteins used for high protein feed supplements, meat and bone meal, blood meal, and pet food
The three legal ways to dispose of a dead animal render, bury and burn
CMT California Mastitis Test PADDLE
WMT Wisconsin Mastitis Test TEST TUBE
What is the term for an increase in the SIZE of cells? hypertrophy
Development of which of the following tissues in the least variable? MUSCLE, FAT, BONE Bone
Which of the following is NOT a general function of adipose tissue? PROTECT INTERNAL ORGANS, STORE ENERGY, SECRETE HORMONE all of the above are functions
As described in class, when does the SLOWEST rate of growth occur in an individual's life? Birth to Puberty
In today's cattle industry, most market animals are slaughtered based on their: Maturity type
As presenting in class, in which species does the castrated male fatten the fastest and therefore would go to slaughter before the female or intact male? Swine
Which of the following is considered a concentrate Corn
Using the nomenclature presented in class, "as fed" minus "moisture" = what? Dry Matter
If chemical analysis indicated a feed additive contains 4% nitrogen, it would best be classified as a: Protein
What makes a micro mineral "micro" it is needed in relatively small amounts
You can tell your parents that it's important to lay out in the sun every day to help synthesize what vitamin? Vitamin D
Which of hormone is NOT associated with milk SYNTHESIS Oxytocin
True or False. The more times per day a dairy cow is milked, the more milk she can be expected to produce per day. TRUE
What does CMT stand for? California Mastitis Test
At what age are dairy calves normally weaned off milk or fluid milk products? 6 weeks of age
What is the length of an industry standard lactation curve in dairy cattle? 305 Days
Australia and New Zealand combined are major world producers of what? lamb and mutton
Which state is not highly ranked for the number of cattle slaughtered per year? Iowa
If you slaughtered a small, lean, 200 pound barrow, how much would you expect the resulting carcass to weight? 140 pounds
Which is the highest value in a swine carcass? Loin
On a chemical basis, meat is composed mostly of what? water
If you let a beef carcass hand in a cooler for more than a few days, the meat will start turning and get harder to chew. TRUE OR FALSE? FALSE
What is heavier, a skin or a hide? a Hide, because it still has the hair on it
Different genetic codes affecting the same trait are: Alleles
Segments of tRNA are anti-codons
Paired chromosomes Homologues
Triplet nucleotide bases on DNA genes
If you crossed a homozygous dominant animal with a homozygous reccesive animal, what ratio of genotypes would you expect among the offspring? All heterozygous offspring
What do we call the gene interaction where the resulting offspring is better than either parent? Over dominance
Heritability can be defined as the phenotypic differences among individuals due to the influences of their genes TRUE OR FALSE? TRUE
As presented in class, for "quantitative traits like milk production and rate of gain, "variation" is: A good thing
What combination should result in the most genetic improvement? Greater selection differential (+), greater heritability (+), shorter generation interval (-)
You select over several generations for lighter birth weight in foals, and as foals get lighter at birth you notice milk production in mares decreases. This is an example of two traits that are: No homozygous lines
What is the danger of practicing intensive inbreeding over several generation reduced fertility, reduced growth, reduced immune system
Breeding Duroc boars to unrelated Duroc sows is an example of Outcrossing
During each breeding cycle of a rotational breeding system, the manager attempts to: Increase genetic contribution from the most under-represented breed in the gene pool
Which producer is usually more concerned with achieving hybrid vigor from mating decisions? a Commercial Producer or a Purebred producer? A commercial producer
What is the genetic make -up of a Beefmaster? 1/2 Brahman x 1/4 Hereford x 1/4 Shorthorn
What happens when you mate a zebra stallion to a horse mare? Results in a Zorse
What does EPD stand for? Expected Progeny Difference
Start with a lipid molecule and removed the glycerol backbone componenet, and what does that leave you? 3 fatty acids
When evaluating "sex linked" traits not exhibited by one gender ( such as milk production) we often compare offspring of the individuals, what term do we call the offspring we compare? Contemporaries
What is the proper term for milk produced by the mother right after giving birth that is full of antibodies for the baby? colostrum
Why are essential fatty acids and essential proteins called "essential" they are called essential because they are need in to animals diet but are not synthesized by the animal. So they have to be provided
As explained in class, what happens when you take vegetable oil and bombard it with hydrogen H+? Vegetable oil is unsaturated, so when you bombard it with hydrogen you can make it saturated
Why is there not a different name for meat from young swine vs old swine in swine, the bone growth is not an essential component of determining the maturity of them. They are basically the same structurally
In a natural breeding situation for horses, cattle and most sheep and goat breeds, why do good managers replace the herd or flock sires every 2 years to reduce inbreeding
What is the special management problem encountered by dairy farmers in Hawaii the grass has too much water that the cows cannot get the nutrients they need from the food sources.
Phenotype physical trait, appearance and function
Genotype : the genes the animal get from the parents
Environment all factors that can affect gene expression
Chromosomes composed of genes
Genes functional units of inheritance
Swine Chromosomes 19
Cattle Chromosomes 30
Horse Chromosomes 32
Human Chromosomes 23
Loci the location of a gene on a chromosome
Alleles genes on homologous chromosomes that have the ability to affect the same traits
MItosis chromosome replication by cell division
Meiosis reduced number of chromosomes to 1 of each pair for gametes
Gametogenesis the production of male and female gametes
Spermatogenesis production of haploid sperm
Oogenesis production of haploid ova (eggs), where most of the cytoplasm remains with one cell
Polar Body cell with less cytoplasm from oogenesis
Fertilization fusion of haploid sperm with haploid ovum. reestablished diploidy
Gene interaction within chromosomes Linear
Gene interactions between homologues allelic
gene interactions with non-homologues epistatic
Heritability phenotypic differences due to genes involved
Differential Reproduction only those sires and dams most likely to pass on the desired trait are allowed to mate, average of the next generation is better than the average of the last generation. This is the basis for genetic improvement
Selection differential (s) is a positive effect. How much better, stronger selectin = more
Heritability (H) positive effect, how much are genes in control of trait
Generation Interval (G), negative effect. How long until next generation reproduces
Predicting Genetic Change Selecting Differential (SD) x Heredity (H) = Genetic Superiority of Selection
Expected Change Per Year SD x H/ Generation Interval
High Level of Heritability 40% or more, Progress Assured
Medium Level of Heritability 20-29%, Progress Likely
Low Level of Heritability Less than 20%, Progress is unlikely
Sex Limited Traits both sexes carry the gene but only one sex can express it. For example only a female can express traits for milk production
Contemporaries comparing offspring to other offspring
The 3 P's of selection Pedigree, Performance, Progeny
Pedigree the information on sire and dam individual. Often go back 5 generations or more. Suggest potential to perform if genes are inherited
Performance expression of the genes inherited. How the idividual actually performed. You want to minimize the effect of the environment to determine this.
Progeny measurement of genes transmitted to offspring. Takes time to get records from the next generation, and needs to be compared under similar environments.
Purebred Mating Systems focus on maintaing genetically superior traits
Commercial Mating Systems focus on hybrid vigor for growth and carcass traits
Inbreeding mating animals more closely related than the average population in order to increase homozygosity of allels
Intensive Inbreeding mating closely related animals over several generations to form homozygous lines
Linebreeding milder form of inbreeding to specific sire lines. More common in seedstock production
Inbreeding "Depression" silencer genes suppress the expression of "good" genes. Decreases growth, disease resistance, and causes infertility.
Outbreeding mating unrelated animals of the same breed. Gene pairs are primarily heterozygous.
Crossbreeding combining complementary traits, picking and choosing desirable traits from various breeds
Genetic Progress 2 major ways: selection within breed, and crossing breeding
Extreme Outbreeding crossing different species within a genus. Allows the widest genetic diversity possible. Like crossing Bos Taurus with Bos Indicus.
Growth increase in body weight until maturity. Increased mass of structural tissue and organs
Hyperplasia increase in the number of cells through mitosis
Hypertrophy increase in the overall size of cells
Development coordinated events resulting in growth and differentiation until maturity.
Skeletal Muscle bulk of growth is muscle. Controlled by genetic, nutrition, exercise, and the environment. It is important in structural support, posture, and voluntary movement.
Adipose Tissue (fat) most variable component of the carcass. Functions for energy storage, thermoregulation, protection of vital organs, Endocrine.
Sub-cutaneous Fat around the edge of a steak
Intermuscular Fat the fat between muscle bundles
Intramuscular fat marbling, fat within the muscle
Visceral Fat internal padding. Includes KPH fat (kidney, pancreas, heart)
Bone Growth bone is an active living tissue. which is formed and reformed throughout life
Osteoblasts help produce new bone structures, serves calcium deposition and storage
Osteoclasts tear away old bone structures, serve in calcium reabsorbtion and mobilization
Functions of bone to maintain sound physical structure, protect internal organs, allows for mobility, storage of calcium and other minerals, bone marrow.
Fibroblasts helps produce connective tissue
Chondroblasts helps produce cartilage
Long Bone Growth at maturity, long bone growth stops. By castrating a horse you can add height
Pre-Natal Growth primarily cell division and protein synthesis. 1st and 2nd trimester --> hyperplasia and 3rd trimester --> increase in cell size
Post-Natal Growth body weight increases but at a decreasing weight. Growth levels off after puberty.
Lean Growth fastest growth, you want to maximize this
Fat Growth late deposition, want to optimize, not desired in excess
Effect of Gender on Beef heifers deposit fat at an earlier age, they are slaughtered 100 to 200 lbs lighter than steers. Bulls stay trimmer due to testosterone. Steers are intermediate.
Effect of Gender on Swine Barrows fatten earlier than gilts or boars, and they are sent to market at an earlier age
Thin Muscling 3.1 ratio of muscle to fat
Heavy Muscling 5.1 ratio of muscle to fat
Growth Implants commercial products that contain anabolic steroids to enhance muscling. Usually complement the animal's own hormones.
Roughage (forage) grazing, hay, silage, low fiber. has a low digestibility only 50-65%.
Concentrates Corn, wheat, oats, barley, soybean, cottonseed, whey. Have high energy and or protein, low in fiber. High digestibility 80-90%, but A LOT MORE EXPENSIVE
Nutrients food components that support life
Classes of Nutrients water, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, minerals, vitamins
Created by: asculpepper



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