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Sm animal nursing

week 4 test

What initiates wound healing? Platelets
What are the four phases of wound healing? Inflammatory, Debridement, Repair, Maturation
When does the inflammatory phase begin? Immediately after injury
Why does blood fill the wound? To clean the surface
What does vasoconstriction do? Slows hemorrhage (5-10min)
What does vasodilatation do? Leaks fluid with clotting factors
A blood clot forms and does what during the inflammatory phase? Stabilizes the wound edges
What does fibrin in the clot provide during the inflammatory phase? Limited wound strength
The clot forms a scab which does what? (2 things)during the inflammatory phase Prevents further hemorrhageProtects the wound
During the inflammatory phase Blood vessels also leak WBC’S into the wound to begin which phase? The debridement phase
Debridement phase, How long until it begins after injury? 6 hours
Neutrophils and Macrophages appear in the wound and remove what 3 things during the debridement phase? They remove necrotic tissue, bacteria and foreign material
Repair Phase Begins when? After a blood clot forms and necrotic tissue and foreign materials have been removed (after the debridement phase)
The repair phase is known as the “lag phase” and is active for how long? 3-5 days
Repair Phase is when fibroblasts invade and do what? Produce collagen that matures into scar tissue
During the repair Phase there is a significant increase in what? Wound strength
Capillaries+Fibroblasts+Fibrous tissue= ? Granulation tissue
How long until granulation tissue forms? What color is it? What is considered poor granulation tissue color? 3-5days Should be bright pink Poor tissue is white
What does granulatin tissue do? (4 things) Fills the tissue deficit, protects the wound, provides a barrier against infection, provides a surface for new epithelial cells to form across (epithelialization)
What does wound contraction do? What is formed?When does this occur? Helps reduce the size of the wound, new skin is formed , 5-9days after injury
Does wound strength increase during the maturation phase? Yes, increases to the maximum level
What decreases causing the scar to become pale during the maturation phase? Capillaries
How long can the maturation phase continue for? Several years
What are some host factors that affect wound healing? (7 things) Old animals, malnourished animals, hyperadrenocorticoidism (Cushing’s disease), animals on steroids, diabetes mellitus, liver disease (clotting factor deficits), renal disease
What will delay all phases of wound healing? Steroids
What are some external factors in wound healing? (7 things) Foreign material in the wound, bacteria, tight bandages, movement, drugs, radiation, chemotherapy
What inhibits clotting? Aspirin
How should you wrap bandages? Distal to proximal
What is considered the “golden period”? for wound treatment? 6-8 hours
Primary wound closure results in healing by what? First intention
First intention healing is indicated in what types of wounds? Fresh clean wounds, minimal trauma, minimal contamination, surgically created wounds (closed with suture)
Delayed primary closure is considered closure of a wound before 3-5 days after injury before what has developed? Granulation tissue, (moderately traumatized, moderately contaminated wounds)
Contraction is considered second intention healing on what type of wounds? Wounds healed without surgical closure
Secondary closure, (third intention), occurs after how long? After 3-5 days, granulation tissue has already developed
What type of wounds is this indicated in during Secondary closure? Severely contaminated wounds, severely traumatized wounds, requires considerable debridement (“toothbrush and iodine”)
OVH and OHE stand for what? Ovariohysterectomy
What gage needle is usually used for fine needle aspiration? 24 or 25 gage
Fine needle aspiration (FNA) provide information on what? Cell type
Can fine needle aspiration this be done on an awake patient? Yes for swellings and soft tissue, no for bone marrow (very painful!!)
What can a needle punch biopsy (NPB) be used for? Swellings, organs
Which provides more information FNA or NPB? Needle punch biopsy
Which procedure(s) requires a special needle/punch? Punch biopsy, needle punch biopsy
Which biopsy’s may require the patient to be under anesthesia? Punch biopsy, needle punch biopsy, always need anesthesia for bone biopsy!
How are needles identified? Type of suture attachment, shape of the body of the needle, point, cross-section, size
The lower the number the _______ the needle Larger
What are suture needles made of? What shape are the needles? Carbon or stainless steel, needles are straight or curved
What are taper needles for? Most common needle for internal sutures
What are cutting needles used for? External sutures
What are the two types of cutting needle? Which is more common? Reverse cutting (more common!!!), regular cutting, (sometimes used for sub q sutures)
What are some characteristics of suture material? (10) Tensile strength, memory, flexibility, absorbability, structure, knot security, color, origin of material, sizing, packaging
What are the 2 types of suture? What are they made of? Multifilament made of silk, monofilament made of nylon
Which is better used in the mouth? Multifilament
Which is the most common type of suture? Nylon
Which is less wicking? Which is less irritating? Monofilament
The amount of pull or weight necessary to break the suture is known as what? Tensile strength
What can decrease the tensile strength? Tissues and enzymes
What type of suture is not treated with anything? Plain, absorbs the fastest
What type of suture is treated with acid salts that delay the absorption rate? Chromic (cat gut, gut)
Capillary suture describes what? The ability of the suture to draw in liquids
Memory of suture refers to what? The ability of the suture to retain the shape it was in in the package
When is it appropriate to use absorbable suture? When prolonged strength is not required, when infection is present
When is it appropriate to use non-absorbable suture? When tissue reaction must be minimized, when suture must be left in for more then 2-3 weeks
How long does it take for chromic gut to absorb? 60 days
Is silk absorbable? No
What type of suture would be used for instrument tieing a square knot? Absorbable, silk
What type of suture would be used for a Surgeon’s knot? Nylon, polyester and polypropylene
How many throws for skin closure? 3-5 throws
Created by: Neonta