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Genitourinary System

diseases of reproduction/urinary

QuestionAnswer
What does the female reproductive system consist of? ovaries, oviducts , uterus, cervix, vagina, vulva, mammary glands
What does the male reproductive system consist of? testicles, urethra, prostate gland, penis, scrotum, prepuce
What is vaginitis? inflammation of the vagina; common in puppies and prepubertal bitches
What causes vaginitis? bacterial infection, trauma, anatomical abnormalites, canine herpesvirus(viral)
How is vaginitis treated? systemic antibiotics
What is pseudocyesis? "false pregnancy"; development of all the signs of pregnancy w/o presence of an embryo
When does pseudocyesis develop? 6-12 weeks after estrus and lasts 1-3 weeks
What causes pseudocyesis? falling levels of progesterone in a non=pregnant bitch can cause prolactin secretion
What are the signs of pseudocyesis? weight gain, mammary gland enlargement, nesting behavior, lactation and mucoid vaginal discharge
How is pseudocyesis treated? decrease milk production-mild water restriction, diuretics, preventing oral stimulation by the bitch *permanent Tx is ovariohysterectomy
What is anestrus? quiescent period in which there is no exceptional hormonal activity (90-150 days)
What is estrus? The period in mammals during which the female ovulates and is receptive to mating. ( 9 days)
What is diestrus short period of sexual quiescence between two estrus periods during which uterus is prepared for fertilized ovum. (60 days or for duration of pregnancy)
What is proestrus? The period immediately before estrus in most female mammals characterized by development of the endometrium and ovarian follicles. (9 days)
What is pyometra? hyperplasia and hypertrophy of uterine endometrial glands with fluid accumulation in lumen
What is the cause of pyometra? increasing progesterone levels after ovulation
Which bacteria can be involved in pyometra? decreased uterine contraction can predispose uterus to e.coli, staphlococcus, streptococcus, pasteurella, proteus, moraxello, klebsiella
What are the signs of pyometra? vulvar discharge, abdominal enlargement, vomiting, lethargy, PU/PD, dehydration, azotemia
How is pyometra diagnosed? radiology, ultrasound, CBC(leukocytes, neutrophillia w/left shift, poss non-reg anemia), Chem (^ALP, TP, BUN), cytology (degenerative neutrophils, endometrial cells, bacteria
What is mortality rate in bitches associated with pyometra? 5-8%
What is the rate of recurrence of pyometra w/i 1 year of medical treatment? 26-40%
What is the treatment of pyometra? OVARIOHYSTERECTOMY; correct dehydration, azotemia
What are 3 take home messages re: pyometra? progesterone is causative, OHE must ensure all ovarian tissue is removed, ectopic ovarian tissue may cause stump pyometra on remaining uterine body
What is gestation period for dogs and cats? 62-65 days
When can fetus be palpated? 25-36 days in dogs; 21-28 days in cats
When can skeleton mineralization be detected radiographically? 45 days
When can fetus be detected with ultrasound about 20 days
What is fetal death? fetal death early can result in reabsorption with no expulsion of uterine contents
What are causes of fetal death? organisms:brucella canis, canine herpesvirus, FIP, FeLV, FPV
What is dystocia? difficult delivery through birth canal
What are causes of dystoia? fetal factors, maternal factors, combination
What are fetal factors of dytocia? large fetus, anasarca, hydrocephalus, abnormal positioning
What are maternal causes of dystocia? narrowed birth canal, uterine inertia
What are the signs of dystocia? bitch or queen in labor > 4hrs w/o delivery, green vaginal discharge during parturition, more than 1 hour between births
How is dystocia diagnosed? PE with digital palpation of vagina, radiography to evaluate fetal position, size, number, ultrasound to evaluate fetal viability and distress
What is the treatment of dystocia? manual manipulation, oxytocin, C-section
How can dystocia be prevented? owners should prepare whelping box, make mama comfy, good nutrition, closely supervise, predict parturition by monitoring rectal temp, take care of babies
What is appropriate maternal behavior? keeping babies warm, groomed, protected
What is inappropriate maternal behavior? display of increased protective behavior or fear induces behavior, cannibalize the litters
What are signs of inappropriate maternal behavior? mother is restless, neonates constantly crying, mother attacking and killing babies
What is the treatment for inappropriate maternal behavior? tranquilize mother w/ace or diazapam
Name 3 lactation disorders. mastitis, galactostasis. agalactia
What is galactostasis? painful engorgement of mammary glands
What is agalactia? lack of milk production (from stress, malnutrition, premature parturition, infection)
What is mastitis? septic inflammation of one or more mammary gland; most common
Which of the following are false re: mastitis? a. Mastitis can recur in subsequent lactations. b. Prophylactic use of antibiotics is not recommened. c. Neonates should not nurse from affected glands. d. All are true re: mastitis.
What are the signs of mastitis? mammary discomfort, discolored milk, fever, reluctance to allow nursing, inflammed or abscessed mammary glands
What is the treatment of mastitis? broad spectrum antobiotics (clavamox, cephalexin); warm compresses, then milk affected glands; protect affected glands
What is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia? Age related pathologic change in the prostate gland causing it to be nonpainfully large; more common in dogs than cats associated with altered androgen/estrogen ratio
What are the signs of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia? tenesmus, prostate palpates symmetrically, hematuria
How is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia diagnosed? PE with rectal palpation of prostate; ultrasound with biopsy definitive dx
What is the treatment for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia? castration, results in 70% decrease in size w/i 7-14 days; low-dose estrogen tx
What drugs are used to treat Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia? Flutamide-anti-androgen drug (blocks testosterone and dihydrotestosterone receptors on the prostrate) Finasteride-anti-androgen drug (prevents conversion of testosterone to dihydrosttesterone); megestrol acetate
What is Prostatitis? Bacteria usually gain access to the prostate gland by ascending the urethra and overcoming the lower urinary tract host defense mechanisms. Chronic may be asymptomatic
What are the signs of Prostatis? anorexia, fever, lethargy, stiff gait, caudal abdominal pain, possible vomiting, urethral discharge, hematuria
How is Prostatis diagnosed? CBC/Chem (may see leukocytosis or normal WBC count, ^ liver enzymes, hypoglycemia, hypokalemia); U/A shows blood, ^WBC, bacteria; U/S abscess, prostatic aspirate
What is the treatment of Prostatitis? antibiotics, castration may help, surgical draining if abscessed; prostatectomy, IV fluids if sepsis or peritonitis
What is the prognosis of Prostatitis? if abscessed, disease is difficult to treat; survival 50% after one year
What is sertoli cell tumor? neoplasia of cells that nourish spermatogonia w/i the seminiferous tubules
What is interstitial cell tumor? neoplasia of cells that secrete testosterone and are located in the connective tissue surrounding seminiferous tubules
What is seminoma cell tumor? neoplasia of stem cells for sperm
What % of all tumors in dogs are testicular? 5-15%
What dogs are at a greater risk for testicular tumors? cryptorchid dogs, dogs with inguinal hernias, dogs with retained testicle in inguinal canal twice as great as dogs with testicle retained in abdomen
What are the signs of testicular tumors? may be asymptomatic, non-painful testicular enlargement may be seen, feminization, bilateral nonpuritic alopecia, mammary development,myelosuppression, hyperestrogenism
What is the treatment of testicular tumors? castration,chemo/radiation; whole blood tranfusion
Name four male noeoplasias. prostatic, penile, preputial,scrotal
Name five female noeoplasias. ovarian, uterine, cervical, vaginal, vulval
Which of the following are true of female neoplasias? a. surgical removal with OHE reduces recurrence for most b. many vaginal and vulval are benign with good prognosis c. more common in older animals d. all are true (d)
What is the most common tumor of female dogs? mammary tumors
What is the third most common tumor of female cats? mammary tumors
What is the risk for dogs spayed prior to first estrus? 0.05%
What is the risk for dogs spayed prior to second estrus? 8%
What is the risk for dogs spayed prior to third estrus? 26%
What % of canine mammary tumors are benign? 50%
What % of feline mammary tumors are benign? 10-20%
What are the signs of mammary tumors? firm, well=demarcated lesions
What signs indicate malignancy? rapid growth, local tissue invasion, ulceration usually indicate malignancy
What is the treatment of mammary tumors? surgical removal ; lumpectomy-removing nodule or lump<0.5cm; mammectomy-removal of one gland for lesions centrally located w/i gland >1.0;regional masectomy-removing more than one gland
Surgical removal with _______ is advised for all mammary tumors. histopathology
In cats with tumors smaller than ______, survival times up to _______ have been reported. 2 cm; 3 yrs
_______ is recommended in conjunction with tumor removal if animal is intact. OHE
What is FLUTD? inflammation of lower urinary tract; occurs frequently, idiopathic, self-limiting in most cases
What are the signs of FLUTD? hematuria, dysuria, stranguria, inappropriate urination, pollakiuria, frequent urnation
How is FLUTD diagnosed? urinalysis, urine culture, survey radiographs, contrst studies , ultrasound
What is the treatment for FLUTD? avoid unneccessary use of antibiotics, change diet to produce dilute urine, amitriptyline
What is the prognosis of FLUTD? likely to recur, no cure, reduction of stress may help
What is renal failure? nephron is damaged and glomerular filtration declines resulting in build up of toxins in the body (azotemia); high BUN and Cr)
What is acute renal failure? (ARF) abrupt decrease in glomerular filtration rate(GFR)
What drugs/toxins can cause acute renal failure? aminoglycosides, acetominophen, chemotherapeutics, ethylene glycol, heavy metals, hemoglobin, infections, immune-mediated diseases, hypercalcemia
What is chronic renal failure? irreversible and progressive decline in renal function caused by destruction of nephron; commom; fatal; cats more than dogs
What are the signs of renal failure? PU
How is renal failure diagnosed? acidemia, anemia, azotemia, hyperphospatemia, hypercalcemia, hypocalcemia, hypokalemia, proteinuria, nephrotic syndrome
What is the treatment for renal failure? Correct fluid and electrolyte deficits with intravenous fluid therapy
What drugs are indicated for renal failure? Ace inhibitors (enalapril, benazapril), H-2 blockers, potassium gluconate, phosphorus binders, calcium carbonate Azodyl H2 blockers calcium carbonate
Created by: kfoster43