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Ferret Incisior, Canine, Premolar, Molar 3 1 3 1
Ferret Deciduous teeth erupt at 14 days
Ferret Permanent canines erupt at 48-52 days
Ferret Lifespan 4-7 yrs (record 14)
Ferret – Males hobs
Ferret – Females jills
Ferret – Young kits
Shed fur in summer and regrow haircoat in fall. Fur color and length can vary during year Ferret
Long flexible neck and spine Can rotate 180 degrees Ferret
Most ferrets are neutered and descented at 6 weeks of age prior to entering the pet trade
Paired anal glands removed Ferret
Descenting does not totally remove odor Sebaceous secretion mild malodorous
Ferret os penis J shaped
Ferret GI transit time Short 4hrs
Ferret Pancreas Insulinoma,Palpate,Partial pancreatic Removal
Ferret Small thoracic inlet Dysphagia/dyspnea,Anterior thoracic mass,megaesophagus
Ferret Average normal temp is 101.9
Ferret Should have normal elevation of back squink
To check Ferret Hydration Scruff area not recommended (thicker)
Ferret EENT eyes,ears,nose,trachea
Ferret Eyes Juvenile & adult cataracts,Retinal degeneration
Ferret Ears brown wax Normal
Ferret Heart rate rapid180-250
Ferret Pronounced sinus arrhythmia is normal
Ferret Heart location 6th-8th ribs
Enlarged spleen common in older ferrets
Vulvar enlargement in spayed female Ferret Adrenal disease
Hair loss progressive,symmetrical from tail to head past one summer which does not resolve Adrenal disease
Very susceptible to distemper Ferret
Distemper in Ferrets Mortality approaches 100%
Distemper vaccine Fervac,Purevacc
Many standard dog vaccines are based on ferret cell culture and can cause distemper in ferrets
Have rabies vaccination protocol for ferrets AL
Yearly with IMRAB 1 or IMRAB 3 ferret vaccination protocal
Fecal flotation indicated in young ferrets Coccidiosis,Giardiasis,Cryptosporidium
Geriatric Ferret is >2 yrs
Geriatric Ferrets prone to Lymphosarcoma, insulinoma, adrenal neoplasia
Renal Disease is common in older ferret
True renal insufficiency in ferrets uncommon
ALT – Alanine transaminase Liver specific in ferrets
Clinical icterus rare in ferrets
ALT/ ALKP not reliably elevated in adrenal Disease
Glucose < 70 mg/dl in ferret Insulinoma, septicemia
Insulinoma in ferret CS stargazing and drooling
Hyperglobulinemia in ferret Glomeruonephritis,Aleutian’s disease virus,bacterial,infection,neoplasia (lymphosarcoma), heartworms
Hyperestrogenism Intact female ferrets
Flat Out Ferret Differentials Hypoglycemia,Insulinoma,Sepsis,Adrenal Neoplasia,Ulcer
Enlarged vulva 89%,Enlarged prostate,Stranguria,Return to sexual activity,Alopecia 86%,Pruritus 40%,Lethargy,Muscle loss Ferret Adrenal Disease Ferret adrenal disease Clinical Signs
Cortisol Baseline, ACTH stim, Dex Suppression does not work
Estradiol,Androstenedione,17-hydroxyprogesterone 96% ferrets w adrenal disease elevation in one or more
Prognosis for ferrets with adrenal disease Fair to guarded – will require lifelong Management
Adrenalectomy Considered treatment of choice
Primary hormone produced by the pineal gland melatonin
Controls ferret breeding season melatonin
Melatonin implant Resolve clinical signs of adrenal disease 3-4 mo
Unknown effect on adrenal size or growth & Preferred to oral melatonin melatonin implant
Melatonin implant Reduces estradiol sex steroid levels
Insulinoma Signalment 3-8 yr
insulinoma Clinical Signs Depressed stargazing,Hypersalivation,Onset acute to chronic
insulinoma Diagnosis Blood glucose <70 mg/dl
Insulinoma Medical Therapy Prednisone,Prednisolone,Recurrent administration of sugar will cause signs to worsen
Insulinoma Surgical Therapy Palpation of pancreas,Nodule Removal
Insulinoma Prognosis Partial pacreatectomy (365-668 days),nodulectomy (234-456 days),Medical rx alone 22-186 days
insulinoma Potential recurrence even with surgery
Lymphoma Signalment 4 months to adult
Most common skin tumor of ferrets Mastocytoma
30% of all ferret skin tumors mastocytoma
Mastocytoma Usually benign best to remove
Mast cell tumor pretreat diphenydramine (benadryl)
Sebaceous Epithelioma Common skin tumor AKA– sebaceous adenomas or basal cell tumors
Malignant squamous cell sarcoma in ferrets are rare sequella
Chordoma Axial skeleton,Usual tail tip,Very invasive,Low grade malignancy,Poor prognosis if other than tail tip
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis IBD Most ferrets >6mo old
Ferret Dental Disease Most Common Periodontal Disease
Tooth pulp does not extend as far in the ferret tooth
ferrets Normal stool is slightly soft and formed, frequent defecation normal
Trichobezoars Hair ball concretions
megaesophagus Adult ferrets Etiopathogenesis unknown
Ibuprofen toxicosis Etiology Prostaglandin inhibition,Altered renal blood flow,Ulceration of the GI tract, Platelet dysfunction
Ibuprofen Clinical Signs GI signs2-6 hrs post ingestion,Renal signs2-5 days post ingestion,Vomiting,CNS depression,anorexia,diarrhea,melena,Seizures with massive overdose,Renal failure,azotemia,oliguria,anuria
Cardiomyopathy Middle aged to older ferrets,Dilated cardiomyopathy most common
Splenomegaly Commonly seen especially in older ferrets Stereotypical response to chronic smoldering inflammation
Splenomegaly 95% are benign extramedullary hematopoiesis
Splenomegaly treatment of choice in lethargic ferrets splenectomy
Helicobacter mustelae Ubiquitous disease all ferrets infected by 2 wks of age.
Contributes to debility in older ferrets 10% will show clinical signs during lifetime Helicobacter mustelae
physical destruction of gastric mucosa profound lymphoplasmacytic inflammation Associated with gastric ulcers Gross lesions usually absent Helicobacter mustelae
Gastric Ulcers stress related, Rule outs Campylobacter,Foreign body,Trichobezoar
Disease Mechanism Helicobacter mustelae Chronic atrophic gastritis,loss of acid production,Bacteria damage mucosa via Direct cytotoxic effect to mucus neck cells,iInhibitory effect on parietal cell acid production
Helicobacter mustelae Diagnosis Fecal occult blood, Anemia,Hypoprotienemia,Endoscopy, Radiographs,Pyloric biopsy
Infectious Diarrhea of Ferrets Salmonellosis,Mycobacteriosis,Campylobacteriosis,Rotavirus
Lawsonia intracellularis Proliferative bowel disease (PBD),Stressed animals,Diarrhea with blood streaking +/- pain on defecation,Tx with chloramphenicol
Rotavirus Diarrhea of young ferrets,High morbidity/mortality,Neonatal kits 2-6 weeks of age,Low morbidity and mortality in adult ferrets
Distemper Etiology Canine distemper virus –Paramyxoviridae–The young or old unvaccinated ferret–The ferret recently vaccinated with a canine approved MLV vaccine
Canine Distemper 100% fatal in ferrets,12-45 day progression,Most commonly seen in pet store kits or as a
Distemper Clinical Signs Fever (105 degrees),Mucopurulent conjunctivitis,Eyelids stick together,Blepharitis,KCS,Cutaneous rash,Hyperkeratosis,Pruritis,Death
Ferret Coronavirus Epizootic Catarrhal Enteritis Etiology Green slime disease,Corona virus
Epizootic Catarrhal Enteritis Highly infectious,Morbidity High older ferrets,Low in kits
Aleutian Mink Disease Parvovirus(ADV) Signalment Ferrets, mink, many others
Aleutian Disease Animals < 1year,ascending paralysis
Aleutian Disease Resurgent disease in ferrets– new strain New outbreaks– approach 100%morbidity and mortality.
Aleutian Disease Virus Treatment Supportive Care,No vaccine currently available,Virus may survive 5-10 months,This virus persists in the ferret for years
Ferret Parasites Coccidia Young ferret 6-16 weeks of age
The big 3 Main emergency differentials vary by species
Emergency Care Classed by Size
Ferret Emergency Differentials Cardiomyopathy,Dirofilariasis, Insulinoma,Ulcer Disease,Heat Stress,Enzootic Catarrhal Enteritis
The Flat out ferret Signalment < 2 yr ferret Heat stress,Ulcer disease,> 2 yr ferret,Cardiac Disease,Insulinoma,ECE
Ferret GI Disease Foreign bodies younger ferrets
Trichobezoars older ferrets
Gastric Ulcers Helicobacter mustelae– RX,Sucralfate,Metronidazole, Amoxicillin,Omeprazole/Cimetidine
ECE Older ferret with history of exposure to apparently healthy younger ferret,– Low dose steroids after stabilization
Insulinoma Signalment 3-8 yr
insulinoma Clinical Signs Depressed stargazing,Hypersalivation
insulinoma Diagnosis Blood glucose <70 mg/dl,Neoplasia,Septicemia
Ferrets are fairly easy to intubate,Similar to a cat,Use very small 2.0-3.0 cuffed ET tube,Consider oxygen therapy in the dyspneic ferret
Vascular access Cephalic catheter Mini-cut down
The flat out ferret is often in a severe state of dehydration Fluid therapy 100 ml/kg shock rate,60-80 ml/kg/day for maintenance,Monitor, monitor, monitor
Avoid dextrose containing fluids May upregulate insulinoma
Blood types not determined in the ferret
Ferret Drug therapy Extrapolated from dogs and cats
Ferret Cardiomyopathy use cat dosages
Butorphanol is an excellent sedative
Even the sickest ferret can be coaxed to eat
Rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculu Lifespan 5-8 yrs +
Rabbits can’t vomit
All teeth hypsodont rabbit
Rabbit Infectious Disease Pasteurellosis,Encephalitozoan cuniculi,Psoroptes cuniculi
Rabbit Physical Exam Less is more
Central auricular artery Excellent for pulse in rabbit
Anesthesia or sedation necessary prior to intubation in rabbit
Vascular access in rabbit Cephalic Distal limb tends to be draw toward the body and kinks the catheter
Lateral ear vein in rabbit Small but easily accessible– Ear can be packed with gauze,Catheter easily tapes and stable
Rabbits prone to enteritis induced by antibiotic administration
Drugs associated with dysbiosis in rabbits Clindamycin, Lincomycin,Ampicillin, Amoxicillin,Amoxicllin/Clavulanic Acid,Cephalosporins, Penicillins,Erythromycin
What drugs can I use in rabbits G+ sparing drugs,Fluoroquinolones,Aminoglycosides,Chloramphenicol,Sulfas,Metronidazole
Non Rodent Therapeutics Hedgehog, Sugar Glider No or minimal hindgut fermentation
AVOID Hedgehog Dorsal SQ Injections, IV Injections
Rodent Therapeutics Avoid gram positive directed drugs Same as for Rabbit
Guinea Pig Need constant source of Vitamin C
Flat Out Guinea Pig Hypovitaminosis C,Trauma,Not eating,Bloat, dental
Rats Rattus norvegicus Lifespan 2.5 – 3.5 yr (record 4yr)
Only Incisors hypsodont rats
Flat out Rat Mycoplasma pulmonis,Murine respiratory mycoplasmosis,Otitis media, Oculonasal D/C
Rat Vascular access Ventral tail artery,Midline ventral surface of the tail
Flat Out Sugar Glider Trauma,Hindlimb paresis or paralysis( Nutritional disease in disguise)
Flat out Hedgehog Neoplasia,Neoplasia,Anorexia,Obesity,Hepatic Lipidosis
Chinchilla Chinchilla laniger Lifespan 9-17 yr
Chinchilla are nocturnal
Teeth/GI similar to rabbits chinchilla
Chinchilla Big 3 Diseases Fracture,Dental /GI,Fur Ring,Heat stroke( 65-80)Respiratory
Flat Out Prairie Dog Trauma,Stepped on,Fall,Dyspnea– (Obligate nasal breather– Odontoma Enlargement of upper incisor tooth
Emergent Medicine of the Minute Hamster,Mouse,Gerbil Less is More
Much of physical exam is observation emergency medicine of the minute
Open collection– lateral tail veins (Coccygeal vein) Gerbil,Mouse,Rat
Dilate lateral tail veins in gerbil,mouse and rat by Wintergreen gel,Warm water,Heat lamp,tourniquet
Sampling Saphenous veins Courses on the caudal aspect of the leg in small rodents
IV catheterization in small rodents 24-26 gauge use Cephalic or lateral saphenous veins,Lateral coccygeal veins,Jugular cut down,Vascular access ports
Intraosseous routes in small rodents Proximal femur,Trochanteric fossa,Tibia,Tibial crest
Flat Out Hamster Tyzzer’s Disease,Proliferative enteropathy(Wet tail,Campylobacter like organism,Zoonotic,TX w tetracycline/antidiarrheals
Mice Mus musculus 2 yr lifespan
Most mice die of dehydration– Similar in hamster,gerbil
Flat Out Mouse Trauma,Dropped,Attacked by carnivore,Squeezed /proptosis,Abscesses,Tumors,respiratory disease
Mouse Mammary Tumors Adenocarcinoma, RNA retrovirus,Highly invasive, anaplastic poor px
Flat Out Gerbil Trauma,Nutritional based disease,Prefer seeds,Tyzzer’s disease-(diarrhea,sudden death,Clostridium pilliformis)Tail slip,Epileptiform seizures
Gerbil Life span 3 - 4 years– 2-3 average
Females tend to live longer than males gerbils
gerbil Respiratory rate 90 breaths/minute
gerbil Heart rate 360 beats/minute
Normal average rectal temperature 102F gerbil
Gerbil Puberty 9-12wks
Fertile until 18 m for female and 24 m for male gerbil
Estrus cycle 4-6 days gerbil
Gerbil ovulation spontaneous
Gerbil Gestation 24-26 days
Form stable monogamous pair bonds gerbil
Gerbils are Territorial
In the wild, the female in estrus leaves the burrow and mates with a male of another territory Her offspring are then raised by herself and her brothers gerbils
Cannot introduce other gerbils to the group after this – aggression Behavior 7-8weeks
Friendly,docile, Rarely bite,May return to the cage if,they escape gerbils
When excited or threatened gerbils foot stomp
Does not sweat– Produced very concentrated urine3-4 drops/day Relatively large adrenal glands gerbils
Thymus Persists in adults gerbils
Gerbil Diet Opportunistic vegetarians in the wild
Clinical Pathology Serumal Lipemia common– Both sexes, all ages– More common in males> 13 m– Addition of sunflower seeds to the diet gerbils
Gerbils RBC lifespan 9-10 days
Clinical Pathology gerbil Sexual dimorphism Males higher
gerbils Lymphocyte:heterophil ratio » Males 6.1:1 Females3.2:1
The thorax is large for a rodent gerbil
Internal parasites uncommon in gerbils
Facial eczyma in gerbils Sore nose, nasal dermatitis,Increased Harderian gland secretions,Erythematous lesions adjacent to nares
Tyzzer’s disease GI Tract– Clostridium pilliformis Gerbils are very susceptible – Death with or without premonitory signs
Gerbil Fungal Disease is rare– Dermatophytosis,Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp– Zoonotic potential
Viral Disease of the Gerbil Has not been reported
Gerbil Parasites Parasitism is rare– Pinworms,Syphacia obvelata, S. muris,Dentostomella translucida
Gerbil Ectoparasites Demodex meroni– Alopecia, hyperemia,ulceration, thin scaly skin, secondary bacterial pyoderma
Neoplasia of the gerbil > 2yr 8-27%
gerbils Most common tumors – Female reproductive system, skin , subcutis– Tumors of the ventral abdominal scent gland– Melanomas of the ear, foot, tail base
Gerbil seizures 20-40% incidence
Epileptiform seizures in gerbils Spontaneous, reflex,Begin 2 months,spontaneously resolve at 6 months– Inherited Deficiency in glutamine synthetase
Intravenous Gerbil Lateral tail veins 0.2-0.3 25-26
Gerbil Therapeutics All rodent drugs are given extralabel
In gerbils Avoid antibiotic associated enteritis Dysbiosis,Clostridial overgrowth & enterotoxemia secondary to kill of natural gram positive flora from inappropriate antibiotic administration – Gerbils relatively resistant compared to hamster
Dysbiosis Treatment in gerbils Guarded prognosis,Fluid therapy,Metronidazole therapy,Motility modifiers,Nutritional support,Transfaunation,Lactobacillus,Cholestyramine
Contraindicated drugs in the gerbil Streptomycin,Dihydrostreptomycin,Procaine– Direct toxicity neuromuscular blockade
gerbil Good antibiotic choices Sulfa drugs,Metronidazole,Flouroquinolones,Aminoglycosides
Preoperative fasting contraindicated in gerbils due to Limited glycogen stores
Rodents don’t vomit
Perform a closed castration in gerbials because of open inguinal canals
Treatment for tail degloving Amputation of bloody stump recommended
Syrian Hamster Mesocricetus auratus– Golden,Standard, Fancy,Teddy bear or Black Bear,Lifespan 2 yr– Solitary,pugnacious,nocturnal
Russian Dwarf Hamster,Siberian Hamster & Djungarian Lifespan 1 ~ 2y relatively nonaggressive – Males attend young
Roboroski Dwarf Hamster Lifespan 3-3 1/2
Chinese Hamster,Striped dwarf hamster– Males larger than females- lifespan 2y• Aggressive,solitary,nocturnal
European Hamster,Common black bellied or European hamster Lifespan 8 yr
Largest of the hamster species-Guinea pig sized-VERY GRUMPY European hamster
Female hamsters can run up to 10km/night (~6mi)
Long haired hamsters must be trimmed
Hamster are generally kept solitarily
Hamsters like to chew and escape
Hamster Diet Wild mainly herbivorous,Occasional small vertebrates,insects,Seeds,shoots,root,veggies,leaves, flowers of staple crops:wheat barley,millet soybeans,peas,potatoes,carrots,beets
Newborn hamsters start eating solid food at 7-10 days of age
Hamsters use Sebaceous Glands to Mark territory & stimulate mating behavior
Hamster Anatomy Dental Dentition– Like all rodents,One pr incisors 3 pr molars,Gap in between called diastema
hamster Incisors hypsosdont,open rooted continuously growing– Not molars,Movable mandibular symphysis
Molars retain food causing dental carries
Newborn hamsters have fully erupted incisors use in nursing
Hamster Cheek pouch is for Storage and transport of food and bedding
hamster Regurgitation, vomition is unlikely
No presurgical fasting is required Hamster
Hamsters can recognize individuals and receptive mates by odor
Gender Determination Increased anogenital distance of the male
Female hamster have 6pr of nipples
Take out the male hamster after mating
Hamster Litter size 5-9
Hamsters may bite if roughly handled,startled awaked or injured
Hamsters are agonistic in general and bite sometimes because they can
Do not surprise or startle hamsters Hamsters are deep sleepers,wake them gently
Restraint hamster Over the back grip
Physical Examination Observational Examination
Physical Examination Padded surface < 5 min,Oral cavity last,– Anesthesia (isoflurane) may be necessary
No rectal temp hamster
listening to the rodent breathe as useful as auscultation
RBC of adult hamster Polychromasia,nucleation 2%– Castration Decreased RBC by25-30% Alleviated by tetosterone admin
Hamsters are Lymphocytic species 60-80% WBC are lymphocytes
Clinical pathology hamster Hibernation Decreased WBC – 2500 total WBC in Syrian– Lymphocyte:Neutrophils1:1
hamster Post hibernation clinical pathology – Neutrophilic leukocytosis 70-90% neutrophils Total WBC 10,000-20,000
Hamster Serologic testing for viruses Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus,Sendai Virus,Mouse pneumonia virus,Hamster polyoma virus,Hamster parvovirus
Tyzzer’s Disease Clostridium pilliforme Not a disease of the immunocompetent hamster– Increased mortality compared to mice & rats
hamster Proliferative Ileitis Wet Tail Lawsonia intracellularis– Diarrhea any age hamster,Fluid support, antibiotic
Dysbiosis in hamsters Iatrogenic– Overgrowth Clostridium difficile,Inappropriate antibiotic administration penicillin,ampicilli,amoxicillin,erythromycin,lincomycin,vancomycin,clindamycin,cephalosporins,bacitracin,oral gentamicin,tylosin,Dihydrostreptomycin, streptomycin
Hamsters are resistant to Bordetella brochiseptica infection– Zoonotic potential to children– Clinical signs tachypnea or dyspnea,purulent rhinitis, sticky eyelids
Nutritional Disease in hamsters If fed Inappropriate diets
hamsters are prone to Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism and osteoporosis
Miscellaneous Diseases of hamsters Amyloidosis– Most common cause of death in the aged hamster,Hyperadrenocorticism
Cardiomyopathy – Aged hamsters • tachypnea, lethargy, anorexia,hypothermic extremities
Viral Diseases of the Hamster Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus,Hamster polyoma virus,Hamster parvovirus
Hamster Other viruses Seroconversion but no clinical signs Sendai virus,pneumonia virus of mice,Reovirus 3,Simian virus 5 Adenovirus and cytomegalovirus inclusions but no clinical signs
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus RNA arenavirus Rare disease of the young hamster Zoonotic Clinical signs,Chronic wasting,Subclinical infection,Multiorgan inflammation,throw away enclosure
Hamster polyoma virus DNA Oncogenic virus Neoplasms in young and adult hamsters
Young hamsters Multicentric lymphoma
Adult hamsters Trichoepithelioma
Hamster parvovirus One of the few clinically evident parvoviral infections of rodents dec litter size,dome crania,potbelly,testicular atrophy
Fungal Disease of the Hamster is rare,Dermatophytosis,Trichophyton spp,Microsporum spp– Zoonotic potential
Parasites of the hamster Pinworms,Syphacia obvelata (rats)S. muris (mouse)
Ectoparasites of the Hamster Demodectic mange Consider hyperadrenocorticism
Parasites of the Hamster Hymenolepis nana– Dwarf tapeworm– Zoonotic Mice,rats,humans
Giardiasis,Cryptosporidia Hamsters are susceptible to these parasites.
Neoplasia in hamster Overall neoplastic rate <2% Aged hamster >2yr neoplastic incidence approaches 50%
Hamsters Most common tumors Endocrine, lymphoreticular,dermatologic, gastrointestinal
Endocrine Neoplasia Adrenal cortex Incidence 14.5%,increases with age
Adrenal neoplasia in hamsters Carcinoma or adenoma
Reproductive Tumors in hamsters Uncommon,uterus and ovaries
Ovarian tumors in hamsters benign,but Gerbils malignant
Uterine aednocarcinoma is common in the Chinese hamster > 100 weeks old (2yr)
Melanoma most common skin tumor of hamsters,male hamsters associated with flank glands
Cutaneous mastocytoma 10% incidence in Djungarian hamster
Hamsters are more susceptible to dysbiosis than gerbils
Seek physical contact with others when housed in group G.Pig
Vocalizations Chutt,chutter,whine,tweet,whistle,purr,drr,scream,squeal,chirp G.Pig
Lifespan – 5-6 y G.Pig
G.Pig Rectal temperature 99.0-103.2 F(37.2-39.5 deg) C
G.Pig Heart rate 240-310 beats/min
Don’t tolerate change well G.Pig
Food preferences are determined early in life G.Pig
May refuse to eat food if shape, type presentation is changed after 6 m of age G.Pig
Obesity is relatively common in pets G.Pig
Wild cavies feed at dawn and dusk G.Pig
Diet Purely herbivorous G.Pig
Expose to a variety of foodstuffs, sizes and types while young to avoid problems later G.Pig
G.Pigs Require Vitamin C
Lack the enzyme L -gulonolactase oxidase Converts glucose to ascorbic G.Pig
Large amount of feces,Defecate in food and water containers G.Pig
Guinea Pig Dental Incisors,premolars & molars continuously grow hypsodont
2(1/1 I, 0/0 C,1/1PM, 3/3M) G.Pig
Incisors normally white Unlike other rodents Guinea Pig
Diastema Gap between the incisors and the cheek teeth
Long colon About 60% of intestine G.Pig
Lactobacillus– normal flora G.Pig
Coprophagic G.Pig
Normal gastric emptying time– 2hr G.Pig
GI transit– 13-30 hr– Average 20 hr– 66 hours with coprophagy Guinea Pig
Inguinal nipples both genders G.Pig
Open inguinal ring May retract testicle into abdomen Closed castration preferred Guinea Pig
Sexual Maturity – Males 3m, Females 2m G.Pig
Nonseasonally polyestrous, breed year round in captivity 15-17 day cycle Spontaneous ovulation G.Pig
Pet animals can reproduce until they are 4-5y old Guinea Pig
Proestrus Active, chase their cage mates,Sway the hindquarters G.Pig
Copulation is confirmed by finding of a copulatory plug Guinea Pig
Litter Size 1-13 (2-4 is usual)3-5 litters/year,Young born fully furred & eyes open G.Pig
Most are docile and easily handled G.Pig
Flight or freeze instead of flight or fight G.Pig
Venipuncture Metatarsal vein,Saphenous vein,Cranial vena cava G.Pig
Hypercholesterolermia Common in G.Pig
Kurloff cell Leukocyte unique to the Guinea Pig & capybara
Kurloff cells are highest in females during pregnacy
The predominant circulating leukocyte in healthy guinea pigs is the lymphocyte,basophils are rarely observed
Therapeutics Parenteral SQ (upper back), IM (lumbar muscles) G.Pig
Antibiotic associated enterotoxemia AKA Dysbiosis in G.Pig Penicillin,ampicillin, Chlortetracycline, tetracycline, Clindamycin,erythromycin,lincomycin
Appropriate antibiotic choices for the Guinea pig Sulfa drugs,Flouroquinolones,Chloramphenicol, Aminoglycosides,Cefazolin parenterally
G.Pig Diseases Scurvy Hypovitaminosis C
G.Pig Enteritis Salmonellosis,Dysbiosis
Need constant source Vitamin C one of few mammals including humans G.Pig
Signs of Hypovitaminosis C Break down of connective tissue including bone, blood, skin
G.Pig Parasites Cryptosporidium wrairi,Eimeria caviae,Balantidium caviae,Paraspidodera uncinata(roundworm)
Virus in G.Pig Possible corona virus
Prone to tooth overgrowth similar to horses G.Pig
Guinea Pig Diseases Pneumonia(Bacterial)Bordetella bronchiseptica,Streptococcus pneumonia,S.moniliformis,• Haemophilus spp.
G.Pig Neoplasia Bronchogenic pulmonary carcinoma is common
Pregnancy Toxemia Primiparous, obese sows,final 2 weeks of pregnancy G.Pig
Created by: alljacks