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viro2

QuestionAnswer
The poxvirus complex is what shape Brick shaped
Replication of the pox virus takes place where on the cell Cytoplasm
Which pox virus is an important pathogen in humans Small pox
What is another name for the contagious pustular dermatitis virus of sheep and goats Orf
How is orf transmitted Direct contact, contamination of feeding troughs, fomites
What is the appearance of an orf lesion Papule than becomes a pustule and thickens to a crust
Where do the orf lesions tend to occur Muzzle and lips, young lambs may have lesions on mouth m gum and tongue
Lesions can also occur on the teat interfering with what Prevent lambs from suckling
What is the mortality of Orf Low
Diagnosis of Orf would include visualizing the virus using what method Electron microscope
The isolation of the Orf virus for identicfication takes place in which cells Sheep cell culture
What is seen histopathologically in a skin lesion of Orf Cytoplasmic inclusions
Orf can be prevented by vaccinating ewes at what timeframe Several weeks before lambing
How is the vaccine created Derived from infected scabs or propogated in cell culture
Orf is zoonotic, how do humans acquire the virus Contact with infected animals or carcasses or fomites
Which groups of people are more likely to acquire Orf Shepherds, vets, farmers who bottle feed young lambsButchers and eat porters from handling infected carcass
What is the pathogmnoemnic lesion of Orf in humans Solitary lesion on the dorsum of the index finger
By what other methods can Poxvirus be transmitted Aerosol, arthropods
Histopathlogy of an Orf lesion in a human would show what Marked pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia of epidermis,Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies
Swine pox causes what type of lesions Generalized skin disease in swine that appears to be localized to epithelial cells and draining lymph nodes
How are the neutralizing antibodies detected Usually aren’t
Mechanical transmission of swine pox is thought to occur through which arthropod Lice
Is swinepox zoonotic No
How widespread is swinepox in the US It’s not, rarely seen
Is the swinepox vaccine modified live or DNA There isn’t one
Sheep and goat pox is in which genus Capripoxvirus
Where do lesions occur on sheep Muzzle and tail
Sheep pox and goat pox are notifiable. Is a vaccine available Yes, used in endemic areas for prevention
Herpesvirus replicates where in the cell Nucleus
What is another name for Pseudorabies Aujeszky’s disease
The primary host for Aujeszky’s disease is which species, Secondary host Primary = swine, secondary= catlle, horse, sheep, goat, dog, cat
How does pseudorabies infection occur Direct nose to nose contact, by ingestion
What is the dominant clinical sign of infection in cattle Intense pruritis on flanks or hind limbs
In swine, where is the virus carried On the tonsils
What condition can re-activate the virus in a carrier pig Stress
What nervous signs can be seen in infected piglets Stop suckling, tremble, become incoordinated and have convulsions, walk in circles
1-2 days after the onset of nervous, mortality of Aujeszky’s disease can be how high 100%
What are the clinical signs of pseudorabies in weaned pigs High fever, pneumonia, nervous signs, death (10% mortality)
The clinical signs associated with pseudorabies vary depending on what Variations in the virulence of the strain and immune status of the pig
Virus isolation of pseudorabies is best from which tissue samples Nasal swabs, brain, tonsils
What other diagnostic techniques are used Histopath, immunofl, elisa, PCR, RFLP
In pregnant sows, what effect can pseudorabies have Abortion
What purpose does a vaccine sere in PRV -protects swine from clinical disease, duration of virus excretion id reduced
Can the virus be transmitted via vaccine Yes, when using a live vaccine
Which is more virulent….equine herpes virus 1 or 4 1
EHV 4 produces an upper respiratory tract disease called what Equine rhinopneumonitis
In additional to respiratory infections, EHV 1 invades other organ systems that can result in what Neonatal fetal death, abortion
How is equine herpes virus transmitted Direct contact, aerosol (respiratory secretions), fomites
What environmental condtions can contribute to the transmission of EHV Over crowding, poor nutrition, extreme climates, dense population
EHV 1 &4 persist in latently infected carrier horses. Where does the virus reside In the sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglia
Reactivation of the virus from the latent stage is attributed to what Stress: surgery, prolonged transport, weaning, lactation, inclement weather
What are the primary clinical signs of EHV Respiratory disease, fever, rhinitis & pharyngitis, nasal discharge, conjunctivitis
What neuro signs might develop in a EHV1 infection Incoordination, inability to stand, urinate and defecate
What types of inclusion bodies help identify EHV Intranuclear inclusion bodies
The HPV virus can be isolated from which samples Pharyngeal secretions, blood leucocytes
What type of vaccine is used for the prevention of EHV Combined inactive EHV 1 and EHV2 vaccine
Equine coital exanthema is caused by what virus EHV 3
How is EHV 3 transmitted Directly through sexual contact, contaminated supplies and instruments
What are the clinical signs of EHV 3 Pustules and ulcerations of vagina, penis, prepuce, perineum
Lesions may also be seen on lips and teats
What effect does EHV 3 have on the fertility of stallions & mares None
How do you prevent the spread of EHV3 Stop natural mating and let disease run its course…10-14 days
How can EHV 3 carrier horses be identified Sometimes they have spots of pigment loss on black skin in genital region
What technique is used to demonstrate the presence of the viral particles EM
Briefly explain what a reverse transcribing virus is Reverse transcription of a virion RNA in double stranded DNA
Caprine arthritis encephalitis is caused by what virus Lentivirus, a retorvirus
What closely related lentivirus causes disease in sheep Maedi-visna or ovine progressive pneumonia of sheep
What does Maedi-visna mean Maedi- labored breathing (interstitial pneumonitis)Visna- shrinkage or wasting (paralyzing menigoencephalitis)
What are the cellular vectors that spread the disease to target cells within the animal Macrophages and monocytes
What is a source of horizontal transmission of CAEV Colostrum or milk
What clinical signs are seen in joints from a CAEV infection Arthritis
What clinical signs are seen in the brain from a CAEV infection Encephalitis
What clinical signs are seen in the mammary glands Mastitis
What clinical signs are seen in the lungs Interstitial pneumonia
In an CAEV infection, what clinical signs are seen in kids 2-6 months age Encephalomyelitis, posterior paresis progressing to paralysis
Kids that recover from the neurological disease develop what condition as an adult The arthritis that is common in adults progresses to the gradual swelling of which joint, leading to lameness
What microscopic sign of infection is seen in the brain Perivascular cuffing
What microscopic changes are seen in the arthritic joints of CAEV Marked hyperplasia of synovial membranes & villosites was well as mineralization and fibrosis of soft tissue
Ovine progressive pneumonia can result in what condition related to the udder Hard bag
Which immune response eliminates the viral organism- humoral or cellular Neither
Are vaccines effective against lentiviruses No
The betaretrovirus that causes ovine pulmonary adenomatosis is also called what Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus
Ovine pulmonary adenomatosis cause progressive respiratory distress,The severity of signs is dependent on what Depends upon the tumor development in lungs
What is another name for ovine pulmonary adenomatosis Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma
What other clinical signs can be seen Accumulation of fluid in the respiratory tract, rales, weight loss, bacterial pneumonia, death
The lesions associated with ovine pulmonary adenomatosis are confined to which ares The lungs
What is the appearance of the affected lungs Enlarged and heavier than normal due to extensive nodular lesions
What is the appearance of the tumors Solid, grey or light purple with a shiney translucent sheen
Microscopically, the proliferation of what type of cells can be seen in an OPA infection Type II pneumocytes
The cuboidal or columnar cells are replace by what type of cells Normal thin alveolar cells
What method is used to isolate the OPA virus There is none currently
What is Scrapie A naturally occurring neurodegenerative disease of sheep and goats
What type of organism causes scrapie A transmiss bale agent, prion
Scrapie is a member of what group of encephalopathies Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy
What type of changes does scrapie cause Behavioral and locomotive changes, degeneration of CNS and death
What clinical signs would you expect to see Behavioral abnormalities, neuro signs, pruritis, incoordination, loss of body condition, death
What is a common lesion seen with scrapie Loss of wool over neck and back
What type of microscopic changes are seen in the CNS Vacuolar or spongy changes, bilateral or symmetrical
Where can the prion be detected long before clinical signs are seen In some lymphoid tissues
A diagnostic MAB assay is carried out on what type of sample to diagnose scrapie Small piece of lymphoid tissue from nictitating membrane
What gene is responsible , in sheep, for affecting scrapie susceptibility Prion protein genes (PRNP)
African Horse Sickness is a virus in which family Reoviridae
AHS affects which species Horses, donkeys, mules
In which species is mortality the highest Horse
What is the biological vector for the transmission of AHS Culicoides
Is AHS contagious No, infectious
AHS may occur in what 4 forms Peracute (pulmnonary), subacute edematous (cardiac), acute (mixed) , or horse sickness fever
The peracur (pulmonary) form has clinical signs that include fever, respiratory distress and coughingWhat type of nasal discharge is seen Forthy serofibrinous
How soon does death occur after the onset of clinical signs A few hours
The pulmonary form is seen in animals with highly virulent strains of the virus or animals that have done what Been worked during the febrile stage
How often do animals recover from the peracute form Rarely
Does the subacute, edematous or cardiac, form of AHS have high or low virulence Low
In the edematous form of infection, where does selling occur Neck, thorax, brisket, shoulders, suprorbital fossa, eyelids, facial tissues
In the subacute form, death can occur between 4-8 days after febrile reaction, and is caused by what Cardiac failure
The acute or mixed form of AHS shows signs of both pulmonary and cardiac forms of the disease. In what order are the signs seen Pulmonary signs followed by edematous swelling of head and neck
What is the mildest form of the disease Horse sickness fever
What are some of the clinical signs of horse sickness fever Intermittent fever, anorexia, depression, slight congestion of conjunctiva
In the peracute form of AHS, what lesions are seen on organs Edema of lungs or hydrothorax, subcapsular hemorrhage in spleen. Comgestion of renal cortex, edema and emlargement of lymph nodes
What type of lesions are seen on the epicardium and endocardium in the cardiac form of the disease Petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages
From which tissues can the AHS virus be isolated Blood (during febrile stage), from lung, lymph node, spleen during necropsy
Diagnosis can also be made by cell culture or inoculation of what 2-6 day old mice
Are vaccines available for the prevention of AHS Yes
Is AHS zoonotic Yes but rarely
Blue tongue primarily affects which species Sheep
Blue tongue is a reo virus that replicates where in the cell Cytoplasm
Blue tongue is tranmistted by what vector Culicoides
What are the primary clinical signs of blur tongue Purple-blue discoloration of the tongue, coronary band hemorrhage
What are the morbidity and mortality levels of blue tongue High
Surviving animals grow poorly with what 2 conditions Alopecia and sterility
What post mortem lesions might be seen in a case of blue tongue Cardiac hemorrhages, enlarged lymph nodes, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, muscles reveal swelling and necrosis
For diagnosis, the blue tongue virus is isolated from what type of sample Buffy coat
The virus is cultured in what type of cells for identification Chicken embryos
Attenuated vaccines are available for the control of blue tongue. What type of vaccine reactions have been seen Fetal death and cerebral abnormalities
Eastern Equine Enecphalitis, WEE and VEE viruses are of which genus Togoviridae
Which species are the susceptible host for EEE, WEE, VEE Horses and humans
Horses and humans are dead end host. How is the virus transmitted.
Between a mosquito and a vertebrate host (bird), the mosquito infecting the hores or human
Which of the 3 diseases has the highest mortality rate EEE
In the host, where does the virus replicate At the site of entry, in lymph nodes, muscle, connective tissue, the reticuloendothelial system and CNS
Give 3 clinical signs of Equine encephalitis Subclinical, fever, anorexia, depression, drowsiness, incoordination, impaired vision, photophobia, inability to rise, inability to swallow, teeth grinding, circling, paralysis, occasional convulsion and death
Microscopic lesions of the CNS include Perivascular & interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration, diffuse and focal gliosis, neuronal degeneration with neuronophagia, interstitial edema
Which is the tissue of choice for virus isolation and identification Brain tissue
What technique is used to detect the viral antigen Immunofluorescence
What is the fate of animals with mild EEE, WEE or VEE infections Recover with neurological sequeal (dullness and dementia) (“dummies”)
How are susceptible horses protected Inactivated vaccines
Is equine encephalitis zoonotic Yes
West nile virus is of which family flaviviridae
West Nile Virus is spread by being passed back and forth between what 2 biological vectors Birds and mosquitos
Do horse infected with WNV transmit the virus t other horses No
To detect the WNV viral genome, PCR is used that is specific to what primers E gene specific
What new type of vaccine has been developed for the prevention of WNV DNA vaccine
Japanese encephalitis is another mosquito born virus that affects horses and humans. Which species is the amplifying host of the virus Swine
What effect can the Japanese encephalitis virus have on pigs Can cause abortion
What steps have been taken in Japan to reduce the spread of Japanese encephalitis Draining of rice paddies during mosquito breeding season, remove swine for areas inhabited by humans, vaccination
The influenza virus is of which family Orhtomyxoviridae
The influenza virions are pleomorphic, which means what They are spherical and filamentous
In the host, where does the virus replicate Nucleus and cytoplasm
Type A influenza viruses are divided into subtypes based on the antigenic nature of their surface glycoproteins. How many different hemagglutinins (HA’s) and neuraminidases (NA’s) are there HA = 15, NA =9
Which species is a natural reservoir for the influenza virus Duck, waterfowl
Equine influenza has how many subtypes 2, equine influenza 1 (H7N7) and equine influenza 2 (H3N8)
What is a main clinical feature of equine incluenza High morbidity, highly contagious-rapid spread
How is equine influenza transmitted Respiratoyr route, close contact, aerosol exudates, contaminated equipment, transport vehicles, clothing of stable personnel
In which cells of the host does the virus multiply Epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tract
What clinical signs are seen from this infection Inflammatory changes result in serous nasal discharge, laryhgitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, intertstitial pneumonia
Prolonged fever, as a result of influenza, may cause what condition in mares Abortion
Isolation of the virus is performed from what type of samples Nasal mucus or lung tissue at necropsy
The virus is best cultured in what type of media 9 -10 day old chicken embryo
Once cultured, what is the most accurate method of detecting the influenza virus Detection of hemagglutination activity in the amniotic or allantoic fluid of the infected embryo
Another method to detect the virus is to add rbc’s to the cell culture and check for the response of the virus. This technique is called what Hemadsorption
Several methods are available to detect the viral antigen including immunoflruorescence, Elisa and PCR. How does the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) method work Paired serum samples are test, one taken during the acute phase, one 3-4 weeks later, results are compared to demonstrate the increase in antibody titer
Swine influenza usually peaks during what time of year Colder months
Why is swine influenza zoonotic Pigs have receptors for both human and avian viruses
Why are pigs considered a “mixing vessel” for viruses They can acquire both human and avian viruses and are a site for genetic reassortment
Porcine reproductive and respiratory disease syndrome is caused by what virus Equine arteritis virus
Porcine reproductive and respiratory disease syndrome is caused by a virus of which family Arterivirus
Why is PRRS of concern Largest economically significant disease of swine in US and worldwide
Where in the host does the virus replicate Macrophages
How is the PRRS virus transmitted Direct contact
Where n the body does the virus reside Respiratory tract and tonsils, in some cases in semen
What are some of the clinical signs of PRRS Lethargy, anorexia, fever, abortion, embryonic death, infertility, decreased fertility, delayed estrous, decreased farrowing rates, stillbirths
The virus selectively kills which cells Lung macrophages
The majority of clinical signs and post mortem changes are related to what Secondary infections
What is the pathognomonic lesion of PRRS Collapsed lung, no air space
What effect do vaccines have on the PRRS virus Killed vaccine reduce excretion of the virus and clinical signsMLV are variable , reduce excretion of virus
How is the equine arteritis virus transmitted Respiratory predominates, venereal from carrier stallion
What is the typical lesion of equine viral arteritis Urticarial rash over the neck and shoulders
What other signs might be seen Hind limb edema, periorbital edema and pink eye, scrotal and preputial edema
What main post mortem lesions are seen in EVA Excessive fluid in the body cavities and interlobular interstitial pneumonia
The differential diagnoses for EVA include which diseases Equine influenza, equine herpes virus 1 & 4, equine infectious anemia, African horse sickness
What type of samples are submitted for virus isolation Nasal secretions, blood, semen, placenta, post mortem tissues
How are carrier stallions identified Virus isolation from semen
How is EVA prevented Vaccination, separate vaccinated animals from noninfected animals
Porcine parvo is in which virus family Parvoviridae
Where in the host cell does the parvo virus replicate Nucleus
Procine parvo is associated with what types of clinical signs and lesions in pigs Respiratory and vesicular disease
Infected adults are typically subclinical in signs, what effect can the virus have on the fetus Fetal death (transplacental infection leading to death and mummification)
Equine infectious anemia is a retrovirus in which genus Lentivirus
The lentivirus can persist in the host and cause chronic illness. What other long term effect can the virus have Immunodeficiency
What are the 2 biological vectors of equine infectious anemia Stable flies (stomoxys) and culicoides
How does transmission occur Interrupted feeding of bloodcuking horsefly on a clinically ill horse, and then on a susceptible horse
In what other ways can the virus be transmitted Contaminated needles, in-utero infection of fetus
Onc einfected, how long does it take for the infection to clear from the blood It doesn’t, blood remains infectious for life
Initially, which cells are infected Macrophages and then lymphocytes
The infection cause what type of erythrocyte destruction Automimmune destruction
What clinical signs are seen in EIA Recurrent fever, thrombocytopenia, anemia, rapid weight loss, edema of lower body, death
What gross changes are seen in lymph nodes, spleen and liver Enlargement
Microscopically, the lymph nodes, spleen and liver are infiltrated with what types of cells Nests of immature lymphocytes and plasma cells
What diagnostic test is performed to identify EIA Coggins (immunodiffusion)
Is EIA a contagious disease Yes can spread horse to horse by body fluids, or mosquitos
Acute equine respiratory syndrome is caused by an infection of what virus Equine morbillivirus
The equine mobillivirus is of what family Paramyxoviridae
How is the morbillivirus transmitted Direct contact with saliva or nasal secretions
Along with respiratory signs, what other clinical sign can be seen with a morbillivirus infection Head pressing
Morbillivirus is a naturally occurring disease in which species Horses and humans
Gross lesions of morbillivirus include sever edema and congestion of the lungs. What is seen microscopically Large endothelial syncytial cells
Pest de Petit Ruminants affects which species Sheep and goat
PPR produces respiratory signs (pneumonia, coughing, rales)as well as what lesions of the oral cavity Stomatitis and gingivitis
What is the mortality rate of PPR Higher in goats (95%) tan in sheep
Lesions can run from the mouth to where Reticulo-rumen junction
What other lesion might be seen Necrotic or hemorrhagic enteritis, necrotic lesions in the spleen, enlarged lymph nodes, apical pneumonia
Virus isolation for identification takes place in what tyope of cells Lamb kindey cells
Vaccinations for PPR have been carried out using what other virus Rinderpest in tissue cultures
Foot and Mouth disease is a highly contagious infection that is in which virus family Picornaviridae
How many serotypes of FMD are there 7
Clinically, FMD cannot be differentiated from what other diseases Swime vesicular disease, vesicular stomatitis,vesicular exanthema
Which species are the hosts of FMD Cattle, sheep, goats, swine, wild mammals
How is FMD transmitted Ingestion of infected food, mainly pigs
Where in the body does FMD replicate Respiratory tract
How does FMD spread rapidly Movement of infected animals to market, mechanical transmission (clothes, shoes, instruments)
Vesicles (blisters) develop where on the body Lips, tongue, gums, nostril, coronary bands, interdigital space, teats
What is the predominant clinical sign in FMD Lamness
Where in the cell does the FMD virus replicate Cytoplasm
Is FMD zoonotic Yes and reportable
Which species is resistant to FMD Horses
The virus causing swim vesicular disease is in which family Picornaviridae
How does the swine vesicular virus gain entry Damaged skin or by eating garbage
With the onset of viremia, the virus is excreted from where Feces
What clinical signs would you seen in an infection of swimvesicular disease Lameness in several animals in a herd, fever, lesions on snout, lips, tongue, vesicles between heel and coronary band, encephalomyelitits (ataxia, circling, convulsions)
What type of cells are used for virus isolation Swine kidney cells
Swine vesicular disease is a notifiable disease. Is there a vaccine to prevent the disease No
The virus causing vesicular stomatitis is in which family Rhabdoviridae
Which species are naturally susceptible to the disease Horses, cattle, pigs
What 2 biological vectors are involved in the transmission of the virus Sand fly and black fly
How does the virus enter the body Break in the mucosa or skin
Vesicular stomatitis is a zoonotic disease. Which people are at risk Farmers and vets
Vesicular exanthema of swine is caused by a virus of which family Caliciviridae
Why did we learn this virus Don’t know…it’s extinct
What are the four corna viral diseases in swine Transmissible gastroenteritis, respiratory disease, porcine epidemic diarrhea, vomiting and wasting disease
How is the cornavirus transmitted in transmissible gastroenteritis Contact exposure, aerosol
Which cells does the virus affect Destruction of the villous epithelial cells of jejunum and ileim
The virus enters by ingestion, where are piglets more susceptible Gastric secretions not as acidic as adults, virus protected from gastric acid by buffering action of milk, virus infects villous enterocytes of small intestines
In piglets under 7 days of age, mortality is almost 100% What causes their death Severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance
Weaners and growers are affected with watery diarrhea, vomiting and dehydration. What is the mortality level of this age group Low
Which provides better immunity from TGE, IgA of IgG antibodies Iga antibodies
How effective have vaccines been at protection against TGE Not very effective
Porcine respiratory corona virus arises from the TGE virus from a deletion of which part of the virion S glycoprotein deletion
What is the difference between TGE and porcine epidemic diarrhea Disease spreads slower
Porcine vomiting and wasting disease is caused by what condition Porcine hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus disease
Vomiting and wasting disease affects piglets of what age Under 2 weeks of age
What clinical sign is NOT seen Diarrhea
The virus first replicates in the nasal mucosa, tonsils, lungs and small intestines. How does it spread to the CNS Via peripheral nerves
Vomiting is caused by virus replication where Ganglion distale vagi (distal vagus ganglion)
What is the wasting attributed to Neurological disturbances of the vomition center
What common infection of the small intestine in nursing or post weaning pigs Rota viral enteritis
Rota virus infects and destroys the villous enterocytes of the small intestine leading to what conditions Malabsorption and osmotic diarrhea
What is the appearance of the infected pig Gaunt and rough haired
Neonatal pigs may potentially have protection form rotavirus enteritis from where Colostrum
What lesions of the intestines are seen post mortem Small intestine appears thin walled, Cecum and colon contain liquid feces
How might passive protection be achieved Vaccination of sows
What clinical signs are seen in a foal with rotavirus induced enteritis Diarrhea, depression, anorexia, profuse malodorous feces
What steps can be taken to prevent a rotavirus infection in foals Isolation of arriving horses and foals for 7 days, vacc of pregnant mare to induce colostral antibodies
Hog cholera is caused by a virus of which family Flaviviradae
Which route is the common route for transmission of hog cholera Oral
Clinical signs of hog cholera include fiver and conjunctivitis, what posture will you see Arched back, staggering gait
There may be purple discoloration of the skin in what areas Abdomen and inner aspect of the thighs
What is the status of a pig that has recovered from an acute infection of hog cholera Chronic carried, grow poorly have an arched back
What affect does the disease have on pregnant sows Increased number of abortions, mummified and stillborns
What post mortem lesion is pathognomonic for hog cholera Infarction of the spleen
What effect can hog cholera have on the lymphoid system Exhaustion of the lymphoid system, atrophy of the thymus and germinal centers in the spleen and lymph nodes
African swine fever is caused by a virus of which family Asfarviridae
How is AFS transmitted Pig to pig contact, mechanical or ticks
In pigs, where does the virus replicate In the cells of the reticuloendotheliel system and causes severe leucopenia
Which test is performed to differentiate African swine fever from hog cholera Hemadsorption
Rift valley fever virus is in which family Bunyaviridae
RVF causes severe disease in which species Cattles, sheep, camels and goats
What is the abortion rate in ewes with an infection of RVF 100%, first signal of the start of an epidemic
The mortality of lambs is over 90% whereas the mortality of adult sheep can be what 10%
Created by: alljacks