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antimicro

QuestionAnswer
Antimicrobials that interfere with cell wall synthesis Beta lactams
Antimicrobials that interfere with cell wall synthesis Penicillins
Antimicrobials that interfere with cell wall synthesis Cephalosporins
Antimicrobials that interfere with cell wall synthesis Bacitracin
Antimicrobials that interfere with cell wall synthesis Vancomycin
Antimicrobials that interfere with cell wall synthesis Cycloserine
Antimicrobials that interfere with cell membrane: cationic drugs that alter membrane permeability Polymyxin B,Colistin
Antimicrobials that interfere with protein synthesis acting on the 30S ribosomal subunit Tetracyclines,Aminoglycosides
Acting on the 50S ribosomal subunit Chloramphenicol ,
Acting on the 50S ribosomal subunit Macrolides
Acting on the 50S ribosomal subunit Lincomycin
Antimicrobials that interfere with nucleic acids Flouroquinolones
Antimicrobials that interfere with nucleic acids Rifampin
Antimicrobials that interfere with nucleic acids Metronidazole (inhibits RNA synthesis)
Broad spectrum Tetracyclines
Broad spectrum Chloramphenicol and derivstives
Broad spectrum Macrolides and lincomycins
Broad spectrum Flouroquinolones
Broad spectrum Sulfonamides
Narrow spectrum Beta-lactams
Narrow spectrum Aminoglycosides
Narrow spectrum Polymyxin B and colistin
All protein inhibitors are bacteriostatic with the exception of aminoglycosides
A combination of bacteriostatic agents can produce additive effect
A combination of bactericidal drugs can act synergistic
A combination of a bactericidal and a bacteriostatic drug is usually antagonistic.
It is pointless to administer two different drugs that act at the same target site This may also perpetuate cross resistance.
SULFONAMIDES These drugs are PABA agonists.
Sulfonamides competitively inhibit the enzymatic step catalyzed by Dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS).
Short-acting sulfonamides Sulfacetamide
Short-acting sulfonamides Sulfamethazole
Short-acting sulfonamides Sulfathiazole
Short-acting sulfonamides Sulfisoxazole
Short-acting sulfonamides Trisulfapyrimidine (triple sulfas)
Intermediate-acting sulfonamides Sulfadimethoxine
Intermediate-acting sulfonamides Sulfisoxazole
Intermediate-acting sulfonamides Sulfamethoxazole
Intermediate-acting sulfonamides Sulfapyridine
Intermediate-acting sulfonamides Sulfachlorpyridine
Intermediate-acting sulfonamides Sulfamethazine
Long-acting sulfonamides Sulfadimethoxine
Long-acting sulfonamides Sulfamethazine (sustained release preparations in cattle)
Long-acting sulfonamides Sulfamethylphenazole
Long-acting sulfonamides Sulfaethoxypyridazine
Enteric sulfonamides Succinylsulfathiazole
Enteric sulfonamides Sulfasalazine (colitis in dogs)
Enteric sulfonamides Sulfaquinoxaline (coccidial infections in poultry)
Enteric sulfonamides Sulfaguanidine
Enteric sulfonamides Phthalylsulfathiazole (sulfathalidine)
Topical sulfonamides Silver sulfadiazine,Mafenide
Ophthalmic sulfonamides Sulfacetamide
pKa and protein binding are the two most important factors involved in the distribution of sulfonamides.
Acetylation (in the liver/lung) is the major pathway of metabolism for sulfonamides
Dogs are unable to acetylate sulfonamides to a significant degree.
Adverse effects of sulfonamides are classified as being immunologic or non-immunologic:
Keratoconjuctivitis (KCS) hypersensitivity reaction, most commonly in small dogs.
Hepatic necrosis may be due to hypersensitivity.
sulfonamides can precipitate in the glomerular filtrate of the kidney, Animals should be kept hydrated to keep urine flowing and urine should be alkalized.
DIAMINOPYRIMIDINES Reversibly bind and inhibit dihydrofolate reductase.
Diaminopyrimidines used in veterinary medicine Trimethoprim,Oneotoprim,Pyrimethamine
Given in combination with sulfonamides to form potentiated sulfonamides diaminopyrimidines
Potentiated sulfonamides can penetrate the CSF and cross the BBB. These drugs can also cross the placenta and are distributed in milk.
BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS Penicillins
BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS Cephalosporins
BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS Cephamycins
BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS Carbapenms (e.g. imipenem)
BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS Monobactams (e.g. aztreonam)
Beta-lactam antibiotics exert bactericidal activity by inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis via inhibition of transpetidase enzyme.
The Susceptibility of bacteria to beta-lactam antibiotics depends on Production of beta-lactamase enzyme,Permeability of cell wall,Reduced sensitivity of penicillin binding protein
Natural penicillins narrow spectrum
Penicillin G only parenteral administration, hydrolyzed in stomach
Penicillin V can be given orally
Compounds with good oral absorption (acid stable) Cloxacillin,Oxacillin,Dicloxacillin
Compounds with poor oral absorption Nafcillin,Methicillin
Broad-spectrum (beta-lactamase sensitive) penicillins (aminopenicillins) that are acid stable often administered with beta lactamase inhibitors
Procaine penicillin G should never be administered IV, because it will affect the cardiac conduction system.
Penicillins are excreted by the kidneys by glomerular filtration and attain high concentrations in the urine The exception is Naficillin which is excreted mainly by bile.
Cephalosporins are classified based on their antimicrobial spectrum
First generation cephalosporins highest activity against gram-positive bacteria
First generation cephalosporins Cefadroxil (oral)
First generation cephalosporins Cefazilin (parenteral)
First generation cephalosporins Cephalexin (oral)
First generation cephalosporins Cephalothin (parenteral)
First generation cephalosporins Cephapirin (oral)
Second generation cephalosporins more effective than the first generation against gram-negative bacteria
Second generation cephalosporins Cefaclor (oral)
Second generation cephalosporins Cefamandole (parenteral)
Second generation cephalosporins Cefmetazole (parenteral)
Second generation cephalosporins Cefonicid (parenteral)
Second generation cephalosporins Cefotetan (parenteral)
Second generation cephalosporins Cefoxitin (parenteral)
Second generation cephalosporins Cefprozil (oral)
Second generation cephalosporins Cefuroxime (oral)
Third generation cephalosporins have the best gram-negative activity
Third generation cephalosporins Cefixime (oral)
Third generation cephalosporins Cefoperazone (parenteral)
Third generation cephalosporins Cefotaxime (parenteral)
Third generation cephalosporins Cetiofur (parenteral)
Third generation cephalosporins Ceftazidime (parenteral)
Third generation cephalosporins Ceftizoxime (parenteral)
Third generation cephalosporins Ceftriaxone(parenteral)
Cetiofur has been called a “new generation” cephalosporin. Not as effective against Pseudomonas. Active against beta-lactamase producing strains as well as anaerobes. It is rapidly metabolized to desfuroylcetiofur
Indicated for treatment of respiratory tract infections in cattle and pigs, urinary infections in dogs, and pleuritis/peritonitis in horses as well as E. coli infections in poultry cetiofur
Cefuroxime (2nd gen.) can adequately penetrate into CSF, so can ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidine and cefizoxime (all 3rd gen.).
Cephalosporins are mainly excreted by kidneys (except ceftriaxone and cefoperazone which are excreted by bile).
Other beta-lactam antibiotics Clavulanic acid: blocks thebeta-lactamase binding site to protect penicillin
Monobactams (e.g. aztreonam) can be used in penicillin allergic patients
Inhibitors acting at the 30S ribosomal subunit Aminoglycosides,Tetracyclines
Inhibitors acting at the 50S ribosomal subunit Macrolides,Lincosamides,Chloramphenicol derivatives
AMINOGLYCOSIDES Active against aerobic gram-negative infections; bactericidal in action (all other protein synthesis inhibitors are bacteriostatic)
Common aminoglycosides Streptomycin
Common aminoglycosides Neomycin (topical)
Common aminoglycosides Kanamycin
Common aminoglycosides Gentamicin (accumulates in renal proximal tubule)
Common aminoglycosides Amikacin
Common aminoglycosides Tobramycin
Common aminoglycosides Paromycin (wide spectrum, GIT)
Anaerobic bacteria are resistant to aminoglycosides.
The post-anbiotic effect is a persistant suppression of bacterial growth continued after treatment (*single dosing method).
Aminoglycosides concentrate in the perilymph of the inner ear and renal cortex.
Aminoglycosides are not metabolized
Aminoglycosides Adverse effect Nephrotoxicity (ATN!)
Aminoglycosides Adverse effect Ototoxicity
Aminoglycosides Adverse effect Neuromuscular blockade
Type I antimicrobials, the ideal dosing regimen would maximize the concentration.
TETRACYCLINES Broad spectrum antibiotics that bind to the 30S ribosomal subunit. Enters the cell via an energy dependent process across the inner cytoplasmic membrane (exception: doxycycline enters the cell exclusively by passive transport)
Tetracyclines interfere with the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the mRNA molecule/ribosome complex, thus interfering with bacterial protein synthesis.
Common tetracyclines Chlortetracycline
Common tetracyclines Tetracycline
Common tetracyclines Oxytetracycline
Common tetracyclines Minocycline
Common tetracyclines Doxycycline
Oxytetracycline is the drug of choice for treating equine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Potomac horse fever).
Tetracyclines are effective against penicillinase resistant strains of S. aureus. They are not effective against P. aeuruginosa.
Tetracyclines chelate easily with calcium, therefore, do not give these drugs with dairy products or antacids.
The high protein binding nature of doxycycline (80-90%) allows it to have a long half life in circulation. Oxytetracyline
With the exception of doxycyline and minocycline tetracycline are NOT metabolized to a significant extent in the body
Minocycline is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 pathway in the liver into inactive metabolites.
Adverse effects of tetracyclines GI upset
Adverse effects of tetracyclines Hepatotoxicity
Adverse effects of tetracyclines Painful IM administration
Adverse effects of tetracyclines Rapid IV administration can cause collapse of patient due to chelation of calcium in the blood, thus decreasing the availability of it for the heart.
Adverse effects of tetracyclines Anaphylactic shock
Adverse effects of tetracyclines Alteration of GI microflora, ***NEVER give Doxycycline to a horse (upset GI flora  death)
Adverse effects of tetracyclines Phototoxicity (dermatitis)
Adverse effects of tetracyclines Renal tubular damage
Adverse effects of tetracyclines Tooth mottling/discoloration
Adverse effects of tetracyclines Super-infections
CHLORAMPHENICOL AND DERIVATIVES Inhibit the bacterial enzyme peptidyl transferase at the 50S ribosomal sub-unit.
Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomes are similar to bacterial ribosomes (both are 70S), and in consequence these drugs can inhibit mammalian protein synthesis CHLORAMPHENICOL AND DERIVATIVES
CHLORAMPHENICOL AND DERIVATIVES Can cause dose-dependent bone marrow suppression (especially in cats).
Chloramphenicol and macrolides share similar target sites and act by competition, thus, these drugs should not be administered together because they will cause bacterial antagonism.
Chloramphenicol is a broad spectrum antibiotic, effective against anaerobes, but not effective against Pseudomonas.
Chloramphenicol concentration in the CSF is approximately 50% of that in the corresponding plasma. CHLORAMPHENICOL AND DERIVATIVES
Cats metabolize more slowly due to deficiency in glucoronidase enzyme. These drugs can lead to toxicity in cats and young animals chloramphenicol
chloramphenicol Adverse effects Dose related bone marrow suppression
In humans aplastic anemia may occur Chloramphenicol
Chloramphenicol It is not related to dose or duration of therapy (the nitroreduction product, nitrosochloramphenicol, is what triggers the stem cell damage
thiamphenicol and floramphenicol DO NOT have the para-nitro group and therefore do not induce this effect)
Chloramphenicol is prohibited for use in food producing animals by the FDA.
MACROLIDES Reversibly binds to the 50S ribosomal subunit. Enhanced by a high pH and suppressed by a low pH.
Common macrolides Erythromycin (other macrolides are synthesized from this one)
Common macrolides Tilmicosin
Common macrolides Tylosin
Common macrolides Tiamulin
Common macrolides Azithromycin
Common macrolides Clarithromycin
Common macrolides Drugs of choice for treating Campylobacter infections.
Common macrolides Used to treat respiratory infections.
Common macrolides Adverse effects Regurgitation/vomiting (small animals)
Common macrolides Adverse effects Severe diarrhea (calves)
Common macrolides Adverse effects In foals, mild self-limiting diarrhea may develop. In adult horses, severe diarrhea may result.
IV administration of tilmicosin produces cardiotoxicity in all species due to depletion of intracellular calcium.
Tylosin administration to horses, by any route can be FATAL!
LINCOSAMIDES Lincomycin,Clindamycin
Antimicrobials that interfere with cell wall synthesis Beta lactams
Antimicrobials that interfere with cell wall synthesis Penicillins
Antimicrobials that interfere with cell wall synthesis Cephalosporins
Antimicrobials that interfere with cell wall synthesis Bacitracin
Antimicrobials that interfere with cell wall synthesis Vancomycin
Antimicrobials that interfere with cell wall synthesis Cycloserine
Antimicrobials that interfere with cell membrane: cationic drugs that alter membrane permeability Polymyxin B,Colistin
Antimicrobials that interfere with protein synthesis acting on the 30S ribosomal subunit Tetracyclines,Aminoglycosides
Acting on the 50S ribosomal subunit Chloramphenicol ,
Acting on the 50S ribosomal subunit Macrolides
Acting on the 50S ribosomal subunit Lincomycin
Antimicrobials that interfere with nucleic acids Flouroquinolones
Antimicrobials that interfere with nucleic acids Rifampin
Antimicrobials that interfere with nucleic acids Metronidazole (inhibits RNA synthesis)
Broad spectrum Tetracyclines
Broad spectrum Chloramphenicol and derivstives
Broad spectrum Macrolides and lincomycins
Broad spectrum Flouroquinolones
Broad spectrum Sulfonamides
Narrow spectrum Beta-lactams
Narrow spectrum Aminoglycosides
Narrow spectrum Polymyxin B and colistin
All protein inhibitors are bacteriostatic with the exception of aminoglycosides
A combination of bacteriostatic agents can produce additive effect
A combination of bactericidal drugs can act synergistic
A combination of a bactericidal and a bacteriostatic drug is usually antagonistic.
It is pointless to administer two different drugs that act at the same target site This may also perpetuate cross resistance.
SULFONAMIDES These drugs are PABA agonists.
Sulfonamides competitively inhibit the enzymatic step catalyzed by Dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS).
Short-acting sulfonamides Sulfacetamide
Short-acting sulfonamides Sulfamethazole
Short-acting sulfonamides Sulfathiazole
Short-acting sulfonamides Sulfisoxazole
Short-acting sulfonamides Trisulfapyrimidine (triple sulfas)
Intermediate-acting sulfonamides Sulfadimethoxine
Intermediate-acting sulfonamides Sulfisoxazole
Intermediate-acting sulfonamides Sulfamethoxazole
Intermediate-acting sulfonamides Sulfapyridine
Intermediate-acting sulfonamides Sulfachlorpyridine
Intermediate-acting sulfonamides Sulfamethazine
Long-acting sulfonamides Sulfadimethoxine
Long-acting sulfonamides Sulfamethazine (sustained release preparations in cattle)
Long-acting sulfonamides Sulfamethylphenazole
Long-acting sulfonamides Sulfaethoxypyridazine
Enteric sulfonamides Succinylsulfathiazole
Enteric sulfonamides Sulfasalazine (colitis in dogs)
Enteric sulfonamides Sulfaquinoxaline (coccidial infections in poultry)
Enteric sulfonamides Sulfaguanidine
Enteric sulfonamides Phthalylsulfathiazole (sulfathalidine)
Topical sulfonamides Silver sulfadiazine,Mafenide
Ophthalmic sulfonamides Sulfacetamide
pKa and protein binding are the two most important factors involved in the distribution of sulfonamides.
Acetylation (in the liver/lung) is the major pathway of metabolism for sulfonamides
Dogs are unable to acetylate sulfonamides to a significant degree.
Adverse effects of sulfonamides are classified as being immunologic or non-immunologic:
Keratoconjuctivitis (KCS) hypersensitivity reaction, most commonly in small dogs.
Hepatic necrosis may be due to hypersensitivity.
sulfonamides can precipitate in the glomerular filtrate of the kidney, Animals should be kept hydrated to keep urine flowing and urine should be alkalized.
DIAMINOPYRIMIDINES Reversibly bind and inhibit dihydrofolate reductase.
Diaminopyrimidines used in veterinary medicine Trimethoprim,Oneotoprim,Pyrimethamine
Given in combination with sulfonamides to form potentiated sulfonamides diaminopyrimidines
Potentiated sulfonamides can penetrate the CSF and cross the BBB. These drugs can also cross the placenta and are distributed in milk.
BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS Penicillins
BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS Cephalosporins
BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS Cephamycins
BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS Carbapenms (e.g. imipenem)
BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS Monobactams (e.g. aztreonam)
Beta-lactam antibiotics exert bactericidal activity by inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis via inhibition of transpetidase enzyme.
The Susceptibility of bacteria to beta-lactam antibiotics depends on Production of beta-lactamase enzyme,Permeability of cell wall,Reduced sensitivity of penicillin binding protein
Natural penicillins narrow spectrum
Penicillin G only parenteral administration, hydrolyzed in stomach
Penicillin V can be given orally
Compounds with good oral absorption (acid stable) Cloxacillin,Oxacillin,Dicloxacillin
Compounds with poor oral absorption Nafcillin,Methicillin
Broad-spectrum (beta-lactamase sensitive) penicillins (aminopenicillins) that are acid stable often administered with beta lactamase inhibitors
Procaine penicillin G should never be administered IV, because it will affect the cardiac conduction system.
Penicillins are excreted by the kidneys by glomerular filtration and attain high concentrations in the urine The exception is Naficillin which is excreted mainly by bile.
Cephalosporins are classified based on their antimicrobial spectrum
First generation cephalosporins highest activity against gram-positive bacteria
First generation cephalosporins Cefadroxil (oral)
First generation cephalosporins Cefazilin (parenteral)
First generation cephalosporins Cephalexin (oral)
First generation cephalosporins Cephalothin (parenteral)
First generation cephalosporins Cephapirin (oral)
Second generation cephalosporins more effective than the first generation against gram-negative bacteria
Second generation cephalosporins Cefaclor (oral)
Second generation cephalosporins Cefamandole (parenteral)
Second generation cephalosporins Cefmetazole (parenteral)
Second generation cephalosporins Cefonicid (parenteral)
Second generation cephalosporins Cefotetan (parenteral)
Second generation cephalosporins Cefoxitin (parenteral)
Second generation cephalosporins Cefprozil (oral)
Second generation cephalosporins Cefuroxime (oral)
Third generation cephalosporins have the best gram-negative activity
Third generation cephalosporins Cefixime (oral)
Third generation cephalosporins Cefoperazone (parenteral)
Third generation cephalosporins Cefotaxime (parenteral)
Third generation cephalosporins Cetiofur (parenteral)
Third generation cephalosporins Ceftazidime (parenteral)
Third generation cephalosporins Ceftizoxime (parenteral)
Third generation cephalosporins Ceftriaxone(parenteral)
Cetiofur has been called a “new generation” cephalosporin. Not as effective against Pseudomonas. Active against beta-lactamase producing strains as well as anaerobes. It is rapidly metabolized to desfuroylcetiofur
Indicated for treatment of respiratory tract infections in cattle and pigs, urinary infections in dogs, and pleuritis/peritonitis in horses as well as E. coli infections in poultry cetiofur
Cefuroxime (2nd gen.) can adequately penetrate into CSF, so can ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidine and cefizoxime (all 3rd gen.).
Cephalosporins are mainly excreted by kidneys (except ceftriaxone and cefoperazone which are excreted by bile).
Other beta-lactam antibiotics Clavulanic acid: blocks thebeta-lactamase binding site to protect penicillin
Monobactams (e.g. aztreonam) can be used in penicillin allergic patients
Inhibitors acting at the 30S ribosomal subunit Aminoglycosides,Tetracyclines
Inhibitors acting at the 50S ribosomal subunit Macrolides,Lincosamides,Chloramphenicol derivatives
AMINOGLYCOSIDES Active against aerobic gram-negative infections; bactericidal in action (all other protein synthesis inhibitors are bacteriostatic)
Common aminoglycosides Streptomycin
Common aminoglycosides Neomycin (topical)
Common aminoglycosides Kanamycin
Common aminoglycosides Gentamicin (accumulates in renal proximal tubule)
Common aminoglycosides Amikacin
Common aminoglycosides Tobramycin
Common aminoglycosides Paromycin (wide spectrum, GIT)
Anaerobic bacteria are resistant to aminoglycosides.
The post-anbiotic effect is a persistant suppression of bacterial growth continued after treatment (*single dosing method).
Aminoglycosides concentrate in the perilymph of the inner ear and renal cortex.
Aminoglycosides are not metabolized
Aminoglycosides Adverse effect Nephrotoxicity (ATN!)
Aminoglycosides Adverse effect Ototoxicity
Aminoglycosides Adverse effect Neuromuscular blockade
Type I antimicrobials, the ideal dosing regimen would maximize the concentration.
TETRACYCLINES Broad spectrum antibiotics that bind to the 30S ribosomal subunit. Enters the cell via an energy dependent process across the inner cytoplasmic membrane (exception: doxycycline enters the cell exclusively by passive transport)
Tetracyclines interfere with the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA to the mRNA molecule/ribosome complex, thus interfering with bacterial protein synthesis.
Common tetracyclines Chlortetracycline
Common tetracyclines Tetracycline
Common tetracyclines Oxytetracycline
Common tetracyclines Minocycline
Common tetracyclines Doxycycline
Oxytetracycline is the drug of choice for treating equine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Potomac horse fever).
Tetracyclines are effective against penicillinase resistant strains of S. aureus. They are not effective against P. aeuruginosa.
Tetracyclines chelate easily with calcium, therefore, do not give these drugs with dairy products or antacids.
The high protein binding nature of doxycycline (80-90%) allows it to have a long half life in circulation. Oxytetracyline
With the exception of doxycyline and minocycline tetracycline are NOT metabolized to a significant extent in the body
Minocycline is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 pathway in the liver into inactive metabolites.
Adverse effects of tetracyclines GI upset
Adverse effects of tetracyclines Hepatotoxicity
Adverse effects of tetracyclines Painful IM administration
Adverse effects of tetracyclines Rapid IV administration can cause collapse of patient due to chelation of calcium in the blood, thus decreasing the availability of it for the heart.
Adverse effects of tetracyclines Anaphylactic shock
Adverse effects of tetracyclines Alteration of GI microflora, ***NEVER give Doxycycline to a horse (upset GI flora  death)
Adverse effects of tetracyclines Phototoxicity (dermatitis)
Adverse effects of tetracyclines Renal tubular damage
Adverse effects of tetracyclines Tooth mottling/discoloration
Adverse effects of tetracyclines Super-infections
CHLORAMPHENICOL AND DERIVATIVES Inhibit the bacterial enzyme peptidyl transferase at the 50S ribosomal sub-unit.
Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomes are similar to bacterial ribosomes (both are 70S), and in consequence these drugs can inhibit mammalian protein synthesis CHLORAMPHENICOL AND DERIVATIVES
CHLORAMPHENICOL AND DERIVATIVES Can cause dose-dependent bone marrow suppression (especially in cats).
Chloramphenicol and macrolides share similar target sites and act by competition, thus, these drugs should not be administered together because they will cause bacterial antagonism.
Chloramphenicol is a broad spectrum antibiotic, effective against anaerobes, but not effective against Pseudomonas.
Chloramphenicol concentration in the CSF is approximately 50% of that in the corresponding plasma. CHLORAMPHENICOL AND DERIVATIVES
Cats metabolize more slowly due to deficiency in glucoronidase enzyme. These drugs can lead to toxicity in cats and young animals chloramphenicol
chloramphenicol Adverse effects Dose related bone marrow suppression
In humans aplastic anemia may occur Chloramphenicol
Chloramphenicol It is not related to dose or duration of therapy (the nitroreduction product, nitrosochloramphenicol, is what triggers the stem cell damage
thiamphenicol and floramphenicol DO NOT have the para-nitro group and therefore do not induce this effect)
Chloramphenicol is prohibited for use in food producing animals by the FDA.
MACROLIDES Reversibly binds to the 50S ribosomal subunit. Enhanced by a high pH and suppressed by a low pH.
Common macrolides Erythromycin (other macrolides are synthesized from this one)
Common macrolides Tilmicosin
Common macrolides Tylosin
Common macrolides Tiamulin
Common macrolides Azithromycin
Common macrolides Clarithromycin
Common macrolides Drugs of choice for treating Campylobacter infections.
Common macrolides Used to treat respiratory infections.
Common macrolides Adverse effects Regurgitation/vomiting (small animals)
Common macrolides Adverse effects Severe diarrhea (calves)
Common macrolides Adverse effects In foals, mild self-limiting diarrhea may develop. In adult horses, severe diarrhea may result.
IV administration of tilmicosin produces cardiotoxicity in all species due to depletion of intracellular calcium.
Tylosin administration to horses, by any route can be FATAL!
LINCOSAMIDES Lincomycin,Clindamycin
Created by: alljacks