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The total body weight is about 70% water.
70% of the body water is ICF (30-40% of body weight).
30% of the body water is ECF (20-30% of body weight).
Interstitial fluid makes up about 22-25% of this.
Intravascular fluid makes up about 8%.
The normal physiological cation to anion ratio of the body fluid is 1:1.
A lot of water is lost during respiration
it is a good idea to keep animals on fluids during surgery.
When protein level is less 5.5g/dl, the animal is hypoproteinemic
Hypoproteinemia will cause fluids to move from the vascular system to extravascular spaces, causing edema
A sunken eye is the most common sign of dehydration in ruminants
Hyponatremia is most commonly seen in liver diseases due to problems with aldosterone synthesis.
If you see circling piglets, you might suspect salt poisoning (hypernatremia).
The primary danger of hyperkalemia is life threatening cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial depression.
You should not perform surgery on hypokalemic animals (K+ is less than 3.3mEq/L).
Acute replacement of K+ should not exceed more than 0.25 – 0.50mEq/kg/hr, otherwise you risk stopping the heart.
Hypocalcemia is almost always associated with hypoalbuminemia.
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors Commonly used Acetazolamide,Dichlorphenamide,Methazolamide
These agents inhibit carbonic anhydrase enzyme, causing a reduction of H+ ions available for Na-H exchange, Na+ and HCO3 excretion is increased.
Loop diuretics Commonly used Furosemide,Ethacrynic acid,Bumetanide
These drugs block the reuptake of Cl¬- and Na+ Loop diuretics
Furosemide increases urinary calcium excretion and is therefore used for the treatment of hypercalcaemia, and hypercalcuri nephropathy in dogs and cats.
Osmotic diuretics Commonly used Mannitol,Urea,Organic acids,Glucose
These drugs are non absorbable, and therefore produce an “osmotic pressure” that increases urine production Mannitol,Urea,Organic acids,Glucose
Mannitol is the drug of choice for reducing intracranial pressure and cerebral edema.
These drugs should not be used in generalized edema or acute cardio-pulmonary edema conditions, because they cause an initial expansion of ECF Mannitol,Urea,Organic acids,Glucose
K+ sparing diuretics Commonly used Spironolactone,Amiloride,Triamterene
Spironolactone is a steroid analog of aldosterone and is a competitive antagonist of aldosterone, therefore it causes the excretion of Na+ and H2O, while K+ is retained.
Thiazide diuretics Commonly used Chlorthiazide,Hydrochlorthiazide,Metolazone (thiazide-like)
Act on the distal tubules, increases Na+, K+, Cl- and Mg2+ excretion and decreases Ca2+ excretion Thiazide diuretics
Methylxanthines Commonly used Aminophylline,Theophylline,Caffeine,Theobromine
Diuretic effect due to increased renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate and the inhibition of Na+ resorption in the proximal tubule Methylxanthines
Epinephrine is the drug of choice for the emergency treatment of life threatening bronchoconstriction, bronchospasm and acute anaphylactic shock
It comes in a 1:10,000 concentration for use in small animals or a 1:1000 concentration for use in large animals epinephrine
Don’t use the 1:10,000 epinephrine concentration in horses, they will sweat profusely over their entire body and could die.
Neo-synephrine is similar to norepinephrine
Adverse effects of terbutaline use with care in cases of cardiac diseases, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, hypertension and seizure disorders, long term use can cause hypokalemia.
Methylxanthine drugs are phosphodiesterase inhibitors which induce bronchodilation by blocking the degradation of cAMP by phosphodiesterase in airway smooth muscle cells and inhibition of light chain myokinase
the increase of cAMP levels in mast cells inhibits the release of histamine and other autocoids therapeutic value includes bronchodilation, CNS stimulation, positive chronotropic/inotropic effects, as well as a mild diuretic effect
Methylxanthines are relatively insoluble in water
Aminophylline is actually the ethylenediamine complex of theophylline
Glucocorticoids are often used for the treatment of antigen-induced inflammatory bronchial disease or when anti-histamines fail to work.
Leukotriene receptor antagonists or Lipooxygenase inhibitors Commonly used (anti-leukotrienes) Zafirlukast,Montelukast,Zileuton
Leukotrienes are potent bronchoconstrictors and trigger inflammatory responses such as edema formation
Leukotriene drugs are higly selective and potent (orally) inhibitors of leukotriene production or function
Have been used to effectively treat asthma in cats leukotrienes
Doxapram stimulates the respiratory center in the medulla
It does not work when used with a neuromuscular blocking drug (e.g. Guafenesin) because these drugs will block the signal from the medulla doxapram
Created by: alljacks