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OC Rome - M. Ages

OC Fall of Rome through the Early Middle Ages

Why were rivers an important geographical feature in Europe? Towns and cities developed along them, made transportation easier (especially to the coast), offered protection from invaders as a natural barrier to attack
What is the name of the large land mass that includes both Europe and Asia? Eurasia
What are aqueducts and why were they important to the Romans? Man-made channels for carrying water to drier areas...could be used for drinking or agriculture
As the Roman Empire grew, what did some emperors fear? The empire had become too large to govern and control effectively
To where did Constantine move the capital of the Roman Empire, and what did he call it? The eastern part of the empire (modern day Turkey); Constantinople
How did the Huns and Goths affect the Roman Empire? They moved in and eventually conquered Roman territory
How did the location of Constantinople affect its development? It was in a good location for trade and defense
Who was Emperor Justinian? List three of his achievements. Byzantine emperor whose major contributions were in the areas of law, public building projects, and working to reunite the empire
Who conquered the city of Constantinople and what religion did they spread? Ottoman Turks; Islam
Who/what was responsible for the spread of feudalism in England? William the Conqueror won the Battle of Hastings and gave his victorious knights fiefs in England
What were the differences between the leadership of the eastern and western Roman Empires? Eastern emperor was leader of the church AND the government; western emperor was leader of ONLY the government (the pope was the leader of the church)
What led to the establishment of the Eastern Orthodox Church? The Christians in the east did not consider the pope in Rome to be the leader of the church; this led to the Great Schism (split)
Who helped the spread of Christianity throughout Europe? Missionaries (sent by the pope) and monks
Who conquered parts of the former Roman Empire and was later crowned by Pope Leo III “Emperor of the Romans” in the year 800? King Charlemagne (Charles the Great)
Who were the invaders from Scandinavia that attacked Europe during the 700s and 800s? Vikings
Explain feudalism. A system of promises that governed relationships between lords and vassals, based on the lord providing land (a fief) to the vassal in exchange for military services (protection)
What did knights receive in exchange for their pledge/oath of loyalty (fealty) to a lord? Land = fief
Who won the Battle of Hastings and brought the feudal system to England? William the Conqueror from France
What is a manor? Describe the various parts of it. A large estate owned by a knight or lord that included a large house or castle, pastures, fields, forests, and a village where the peasants lived
Define chivalry. What term has a similar meaning in Japanese? The code of honorable behavior that European knights followed; similar to the Japanese samurai code called Bushido
What is excommunication? Why did medieval Christians fear it? The power to cast a person out of the church; if a Christian was excommunicated he/she would not go to heaven when they died
What was the "Great Schism" in the 1,000s, and what was the result? The split in the Christian Church that resulted in the Eastern Orthodox (in the east) and the Roman Catholic Church (in the west)
As popes increased their power, who did they come in conflict with? Kings
Describe the disagreement between Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV. King Henry IV picked a bishop the pope didn't approve of, Henry tried to have the pope removed from power, the pope excommunicated Henry, Henry pleaded for forgiveness in the snow, the pope eventually let him back into the church
Why were the Crusades fought? The Christian armies were trying to gain control of Jerulsalem and all of the Holy Land
Who did the Christians fight against in the Crusades? Muslims
Who controlled the Holy Land at the end of the Crusades? The Muslims
Describe three results of the Crusades - Which was most significant? Trade increased between Europe and Asia, kings became more powerful, tension between Christians, Muslims, and Jews grew; Most significant - Increased trade between Europe and Asia
Who played the biggest role in creating Europe’s first universities? The church
What was the subject of most art and architecture created in the Middle Ages? Christianity
What was the Magna Carta and why did nobles make King John sign it in 1215? The "Great Charter" (document) listing the rights that the king could not ignore; nobles wanted to limit the power of the kings
What does the right of habeas corpus mean? A person cannot be jailed without a reason; "you have the body"
What was the deadly plague that swept through Europe in the 1300s? The Black Death
How did life change for peasants and serfs who survived the plague? They began to demand wages for their labor
What was the main goal of Isabella and Ferdinand in Spain? To establish Christianity (Catholicism) as the only religion in Spain
Describe the purpose of the Spanish Inquisition. To rid Spain of all non-Christians and establish Catholicism as the only religion
Feudalism developed out of a need for? Protection
The continuous threat of invasion from groups such as the Vikings, Magyars, and Muslim armies resulted in the development of what system of protection? Feudalism
What was special about the laws in ancient Rome? They were written down, publicly displayed, and designed to protect the citizens against unfair treatment
What were some reasons for the fall of the Rome? Barbarian invasions, political corruption, inflation, disease, unemployment...
Describe Roman the main characteristics of Roman art. Very life-like/realistic
What was the goal of Roman architects? The build strong and beautiful structures
What two things did the Byzantine emperor have power over? The government and the church
What were the differences between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church? In the Orthodox Church Greek was the official language, priests could get married, and the emperor was the leader of the church; in the Roman Catholic Church Latin was the official language, priests could NOT marry, and the pope was the leader
What things contributed to the decline of feudalism? Crusades and wars, the growth of towns, the Black Death
Created by: Oak Crest Middle