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Animal Science Lab

QuestionAnswer
Ayshire Dairy Cow Deep Cherry Red with white, with dark eyes and muzzle Horns forward and up Low registration number, mostly a novelty breed now Low milk production and nervous disposition
Brown Swiss Dairy Cow Brown , Tan, Grey, hairs dark with light tips do well in heat, dual purpose cow for both meat and milk Milk can sell to both markets. 4.0% butterfat embryo transfer, can accommodate large weight calf
Guernsey Dairy cow shades of golden brown with white, lighter color around the eyes and muzzle small in size relatively low production but high butterfat low registration numbers more suited to be grazers
Holstein-Friesian Originated in Holland Black and White Highest Production Low butterfat content because it is diluted by the volume of milk Highest registration numbers (70% of U.S. Dairy Cows) Most elite genetics of Dairy Cows
Jersey Brown, tan, with or without white markings very small ~1000 pounds highest percentage of butterfat 4.7% Second most popular breed in the U.S. because of ilk butterfat pricing very efficient for body size and heat tolerant fine boned, calves are small
Milking Shorthorn from the same anscetry as the beef type shorthorn subtype selected fro milk rather than beef over the years Noticeably larger udder
British Breeds of Beef Cattle mature and fatten at lighter market weights grow slower less muscular more fertile less calving difficulty live and reproduce longer
Angus Black in color Polled Originated in Scotland Most Popular breed Quick to add marbling, high quality carcass very fertile pigmented skin (helps prevent skin cancer, but hard in sunshine) Have some trouble in cold
Hereford Red body, white extremities Horns were bred out, now polled Originated in England Second most popular breed Do well on open range Hardy in winter Bulls have good libido DO NOT marble well
Shorthorn Red, roan or white Originated in England easy calving females good disposition moderate cow size patchy finish light muscling, therefore poor carcass cutability
Red Angus Red Polled Originated in USA, but not very popular in terms of total numbers 5th most popular breed Same characteristics as angus, just red
Continental Exotic Breeds (Sire Type Breeds) Originated in Continental Europe larger mature size later maturing heavier muscled, thus higher yielding carcasses less fertile more calving problems less marbling, lower quality grade NORMALLY USED IN CROSSBREEDING
Charolais creamy white originated in France both polled and horned one of the first exotic breeds to be introduced to the US 3rd most popular breed in the US heavy muscling rapid growth rate carcasses have desirable yield grades milk production needs improving
SImmental yellow to red and white Originated in Switzerland 4th most popular breed in US high milk production rapid growth rate some calving difficulties due to heavy birth weight fertility is low managed more like a dairy cow than a beef cow
Limousin Originated in France Golden red to light yellow 6th most popular breed in the US, the #1 exotic breed Highest yeilding carcass of all breeds Easier calving than other exotics Smaller cow size, good for crossbreeding slower ADG nervous
Gelbvieh Yellow to Golden Red Originated in Austria 7th most popular breed Rapid growth good carcass good maternal traits some calving difficulties some cattlemen don't like the heavy dewlap
Chianina White to grey with black muzzle, feet, and switch Developed in Italy Rapid growth rate Ease of calving poor fertility in females nervous disposition use only in terminal crosses
Maine-Anjou Red and white Developed in France dual-purpose breed in Europe Rapid Growth Rate High milk production extreme calving difficulty, and high calf mortatlity cow probably too large to use as a dam breed
Salers dark red, white switch originated in France in mountainous regions under hard conditions 10th most popular breed easy calving fertile fairly good milk production rugged and adapted to harsh conditions bad disposition some structural problems
Pinzgauer Chestnut brown with white topline, buttocks and underline Horned Originated in Austria high milk production more fertile fewer calving problems considered a minor breed
Brahman White Horned Developed in India 11th most popular breed Easy calving Work well as a dam breed Low fertility slow growth rate lack of adequate muscle Popular in southeast and southwest
Santa Gertrudis Red Both Horned and Polled Originated in USA (king ranch) 5/8 Shorthorn 3/8 Brahman Rapid Growth Good milk production Work as either sire or dam breed Lower fertility lack adequate muscle
Brangus Black Polled Originated in USA 5/8 Angus 3/8 Brahman 8th most popular breed Good milk production High fertility Primarily a dam breed
Beefmaster predominatley red and white predominatley horned Originated in USA (4/10 Brahman, 3/10 Hereford and 3/10 Shorthorn) 9th most popular breed dam breed, similar to brangus but with lower fertility
Open face on sheep, wool does not grow on the face
Closed face on sheep, wool grows on face and can lead to wool blindness
Staple length on sheep, the length of the fiber
Crimp more crimp --> higher quality wool, better weaving
Yolk oiliness of wool, lanolin (wool grease)
Black Fibers decrease wool value
Tight Fleece the tighter the fleece the better, and open fleece can lead to contamination.
Rambouillet most popular breed in the US Fine wool breed Cream to white in color, wool on legs Have problems with closed faces highly desirable wool lacking muscle, poor meat quality Strong flocking instinct Hardy Longevity Will breed out of season slow maturing
Dorset white color, wool on legs moderatley low set good mutton medium wool, not very dense, medium staple length Popular farm flock sheep will breed out of season good milk production
Suffolk Black head and legs free from wool No wool on head, open face largest sized breed in US Excellent mutton type medium wool, light fleece Black fibers frequent longevity ewes are good mothers
Hampshire open face, usually rich brown to black with black legs some wool on head and legs
Southdown white, light brown face and legs, wool extends below eyes (closed face) extremely compact with excellent carcass quality early market maturity excellent for hot house production one of the oldest sheep breeds good in confinement because so small
Cheviot clean alert appearance white open face, erect ears, clean head and legs small, low set, thick, well-proportioned very hardy and able to withstand harsh conditions nothing too special about the wool
Columbia dual purpose breed Lincoln x Ranboulliet very large frame little tuft of wool between eyes developed for range 1st breed originated in US White open face, wool on legs medium wool, heavy fleece, medium-long staple length good carcass good mothers, hardy
Targhee looks similar to Columbia fine wool, tighter fleece than columbia but staple a little shorter staple length medium/large hardy with good flocking instincts produce good market lambs
Polypay means many income
Finnsheep from finland white, no wool on face nad legs small to medium size medium wool, medium staple length poor carcass conformation somewhat frail very prolific early puberty easy lambing primarily used in crossbreeding programs
Romanov Imported from Russia born black and the fleece lightens to a soft silver grey head is normally black early sexual maturity very prolific ewes will breed any month of the year used in crossbreeding to increase fertility
Texel Originated on the Island of Texel in the Netherlands polled with white legs and faces which are free of wool medium body size high amount of muscle to lean fat ratio small amount of intermuscular fat high lamb survival rates
Dam Lines WHITE COLORED strong maternal traits, litter size number weaned 21 day littler weight
Sire Lines RED OR BLACK age at market weight average daily gain feed efficiency carcass yield
Erect Ears developed in England, name ends in shire
Yorkshire White with erect ears Originated in England Farrow large litters, excellent mothering and milking ability long bodied, good growth rates soundness extreme variability in muscling, fat and meat quality less hardy
Duroc Solid golden to deep brick red Drooped Ears Originated in US excellent growth rates, and feed efficiencies vigorgous poor mothers, wean smaller litters problems with soundness poor feet and leg structures used for crossbreeding
Hampshire black with a white belt entirely encircling the body, including both front feet and legs erect ears Originated in Southern England Excellent carcass traits, meaty, muscular animals boars lack libido small litters used primarily as a sire breed
Landrace primarily considered a maternal breed
Berkshire sound, adapted to confinement good meat quality short-bodied poor maternal characteristics poor growth rate and efficiency lots of exports to Japan "certified, Berkshire" Primarily sire breed, oldest lineage of swine
Chester White white with drooped ears originated in USA large litters, milk well, excellent mothers muscular carcasses Short-bodied slow growing Primarily considered a maternal breed
Poland China black with white markings, confined to face legs and tail drooped ears Developed in USA large loin eye slow growth rate short bodied poor maternal characteristics Popularity declining Primarily considered a sire breed
Spotted black and white spotted with drooped ears originated in USA good growth rate long bodied hardy and adaptable good libido of boars Bad maternal characterisitcs bad carcass characteristics Primarily considered a sire breed
Created by: asculpepper