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exam I

What embryologic portion becomes the cerebrum and rhinencephalon? telencephalon
What does the telencephalon represent in the mature animal? Cerebrum + rhinencehpalon
What does the diencephalon represent in the mature animal? thalamus + hypothalamus
What is the embryologic precursor to the thalamus? diencephalon
What is the embyologic precursor to the midbrain region? mesencephalon
This gyrus lies rostral to the cruciate sulcus and is the most rostral gyri, found in the frontal lobe precrucitate gyri
This structure lies caudal to the cruciate sulcus in the frontal lobe postcruciate groove
this is found rostral to the postcruciate gyrus and caudal to the precruciate gryus cruciate sulcus
occipital groove
This structure is located dorsal to the ectosylvian gryus in the parietal lobe, frontal lobe and occipital lobe. suprasylavian groove
This is located immediately dorsal to the sylvian gyrus and ventral to the to the suprasylvian gyrus of the temporal lobe ectosylavian groove
what is located immediately dorsal to the pseudosylvian fissure in the temporal lobe (ventral to ectosylvian gyrus) sylvian groove
What structure is in the temporal lobe and ventral to the sylvian gyrus Pseudosylavian fissure
What two gyri are included in the temporal lobe of the cerebellum? sylvain and ectosylvian gyri
which lobe of the cerebellum is located caudal to the frontal lobe? Parietal lobe
Which cerebral lobe is located on the underside of the cerebellum and pear shaped? piriform lobe
What cerebral divisions are included in the frontal lobe? cruciate sulcus, postcruciate gyri, rostral portion of supracurciate gyri
wWhat is the physical location of the olfacory area? piriform lobe
What is the physical location that is strictly somesthetic? ectosylvian gyri of temporal lobe
What area is both somesthetic and motor areas? postcruciate gyri of the frontal lobe and the rostral suprasylvian gyri of the frontal lobe
What physical location makes up the visual area? Occipital gyri of the occipital lobe
Where is the auditory area found? Ectosylvian gryi of the temporal lobe
What is the origin of Cranial nerve I? Olfactory nerve originates in olfactory cells of the olfactory epithelium
Destination of CNI? olfactory bulb
Function of CNI? Olfaction
This is the grey matter of the telencephalon that covers the surface of the cerebrum cerebral cortex
The white matter of the telencephalon crossing the midsection corpus callosum
The white matter of the telencephalon that extends ventrally - mixture of cerebral efferent and afferent fibers internal capsule
This portion of the diencephalon is made up of gray matter and is pine-cone shaped pineal gland = epithalamus
What is the function of the pineal gland/epithalamus? endocrine gland - releases melatonin - regulates gonadal function & sleep/waking rhythms
The nuclei of the thalamus are responsible for what? Sensory & motor signals combining before projecting to the cerbral cortex
damage to this structure would stop input to the cerebral cortex internal capsule
The nuclei of the hypothalamus control the release of hormones from where? hypophysis
Hypothalamus is key for what behaviors? emotion, sleeping, eating, drinking, and sexual behavior
The hypothalamus plays a role in homeostasis maintenance in what two ways? ANS control and control of circulating hormones
This nuclei mediates somesthetic sensory an motor information to their cotrices thalamic nuclei
This nucleus is responsible for visual signals to the visual cortex Lateral geniculate nucleus
What nucleus sends auditory signals to the auditory cortex medial geniculate nucleus
CNII is responsible for what function? Optic nerve = vision
CNII originates from where? Retinal ganglion cells
What is the destination of CN II lateral geniculate nucleus
What are the 3 areas visual information terminantes? Lateral geniculate nucleus - conscious perception of vision Rostral colluciulus - puppilary dilation Protector nucleus - pupillary constriction (PLR)
What structure is the reflex center for the visual system? rostral colliculus
What structure is the reflex for sound and movement? caudal colliculus
this structure is the crossing point of motor fibers from left to right side of the brain for 75-80% of fibers pyramidal decussation
Of the cranial nerves how many of them are from the brain stem? 10 of the 12 cranial nerves
What cranial nerves are sensory? I, II, VIII
What cranial nerves are motor? III, IV, VI, XI, XII
What cranial nerves are mixed? V, VII, IX, X
Which cranial nerves originate from the midbrain? III, IV
Which cranial nerves originate from the pons? V
which nuclei receives the auditory information? cochlear nuclei
which nuclei receives information for balance vestibular nuclei
What midbrain structures is made of descending motor tracts of the cerebral cortex that terminate in the brain stem or spinal cord? crus cerebri
What ocular muscle functions to lift the eyelid open to the palpebral fissure and what nerve innervates this muscle? levator palpebrae m., CN III(oculomotr)
what muscle rotates the eye upwards and what nerve innervates it? dorsal rectus m, CN III(oculomotor)
ventral rectus m. CN III(oculomotor)
What muscle rotates the eye counterclockwise and clockwise? What nerve innervates it? ventral oblique m. CN III (Oculomotor)
What causes a lateral strabismus? Injury to CN III (oculomotor
what nerve causes pupil dilation? Injury to CN III (oculomotor)
What causes ptosis (dropped eyelid)? injury to CN III (oculomotor)
What nerve is responsible for third eyelid reflex? (response to cornea touch)
What is the only structure connecting cerebellum to brain stem? cerebellar peduncles
what structure needs to be cut to remove the cerebellum? cerebellar peduncles
this brain structure is located caudal to the throchlear nerve and caudal colliculus pons
What is responsible for the primary innervation of the orbital area? CN V (opthalmic branch of trigeminal nerve)
Of CN V which branches are sensory and which are mixed? Opthalmic and maxillary are sensory, mandibular is mixed
A lesion of what nerve would lead to a dropped jaw? mandibular branch of trigeminal (CN V)
An animal is not responding to a pen touch inside the nostril, what nerve is effected? maxillary branch of trigeminal (CN V)
What spinal tract mediates the facial sensations (pain and temperature)? Spinal tract V
What does the spinal tract V do? mediate facial sensations (pain, temperature)
A dog is able to lap water? What nerve does this tell us about? Hypoglossal nerve is okay
What response is tested by spontaneous blinking? Menace response
What nerves are involved with the menace response? CN III, VII
What nerves are involved with spontaneous linking? CN III, VII
An animal that is not responding to a stimulus applied to the cheek, nostril or mandibular area shows an injury to what cranial nerve? Trigeminal
What nerves are involved with the palpebral reflex? trigeminal and facial
What is the sensory portion of the palpebral reflex? trigeminal
What is the motor portion of the palpebral reflex? facial
An animal has lack of sensation in orbital, maxillary or mandibular area - what nerve is affected? trigeminal
Mild mastication problems - loss of mastication all together is seen in injuries of what CN? Trigeminal - branch
What cranial nerve mediates aurditory and vestibular signals? CN VIII = vestibulochochlear
Where is the cochlear nerve originate from? cochlear nuclei
What does the cochlear nuclei innervate? organ of corti in the inner ear
this nuclei is responsible for balance and ocular response to head movement vestibular nuclei
What gives rise to the vestibular nerve? vestibular nuclei
what innervates the vestibular receptors of the inner ear? vestibular nuclei
What does the vestibular nuclei innervate? vestibular receptors of inner ear
What lobe of the cerebellum is associated with the vestibular nuchlei? flocculonodular
What mediates the signals for touch, vibration, preconception for the cervical and upper thoracic limb & thoracic areas fasciculus cuneatus
Where is spinal tract V located? lateral to the fasciculus cuneatus
What is found lateral to the fasciculus cuneatus? spinal tract V
What mediates the signals for pain & temperature of the face? spinal tract V
Which part of the brain gives rise to the CN VIII, 2 nuclei, the fasciculus cuneatus and a spinal tract dorsally? Medulla oblongota
The trapezoid body is found in what part of the brain? medulla
what type of fibers is the trapezoid body made of? sensory fibers
what medullary structure carries auditory signals from the cochlear nuclei to the other auditory system nuclei? trapezoid body
the trapezoid body carries what type of signals? auditory
The pyramid is a part of what part of the brain? pyramid
what type of fibers does the pyramid contain? motor fibers
Where do the fibers in the pyramid run? cerebral cortex to brain stem/spinal cord motor nuclei
What medullary structure is made of motor fibers, originating from the cerebral cortex and terminating in the motor nucleus in the brain stem or spinal cord? pyramid
What nerves originate from the medullary area of the brain? CN VI through XII
In this area 75% of pyramidal fibers cross to descend in the contralateral side of the spinal cord pyramidal decussation
What is the pyramidal decussation? area of medulla where 75% of pyraidal fibers cross to descend in the contralateral side of the spinal cord
Blinking, closing the eyelid, lacrimal glands, salivary glands, nasal glands, and the rostral 2/3 taste buds are under influence of what? facial nerve CN VII
What is the function of the facial nerve? facial expression, facial mm.
What does the motor nuclei VII do? innervates facial mm. orbicularis oculi mm.
What does the parasympathetic nuclei VII control? Lacrimal gland
facial parlaysis would indicate an injury to what? Facial Nerve, motor nuclei VII
What injury would you suspect if the animal is not blinking or responding to the palpebral reflex? orbicularis oculi mm. - facial nerve, motor nuclei VII
An animal that has keratitis most likely has injured what? lacrimal gland - parasympathetic nucleus VII of facial nerve
What nerves are involved in the third eyelid reflex? CN VI, V
What nerves are involved in the palpebral reflex? CN V, VII facial, vestibulocochlear
this nerve mediates the vestibular signals from the vestibular organ of the inner ear to the vestibular nuclei in the medulla oblongata Vestibular nerve of Vestibulocochlear nerve (VII)
What nerve mediates the auditory signals from the organ of Corti in the inner ear to the cochlear nuclei in the medulla oblongata Cochlear nerve of Vestibulocochlear (VII)
Where is the cochlear nuclei found? the caudal end of the cerebellar peduncles
Clinical sign associated with the CN VIII or cochlear nuclei would display how? hearing loss on the side of the lesion, loss of balance
An animal with a tilted head, circling toward the same side may have what injury? Vestibulocochlear nerve CN VIII
What is the peripheral sensory receptor of CN VIII? vestibular organ
What type of nerve is CN VIII sensory
What ganglion is related to the CN VIII vestibular ganglion
What nuclei gives rise to the vestibular nuclei, flocculus and nodulus of cerebellum, motor nucleus III - VI, spinal motor nuclei central nuclei
what clinical sign is the combination of involuntary slow and rapid eye movements? nystagmus
nystagmus occurring when the head is still is seen with what injury? CN VIII (vestibulochochlear) or vestibular nuclei
What cranial nerves are associated with swallowing? IX and X glossopharyngeal and vagus
The pharynx, baroreceptors of carotid sinus, chemoreceptors of carotid body and the caudal 1/3 of the tongue taste buds are controled by what nucleus of what nerve? Nucleus of the solitary tract - glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
What are the three nuclei associated with CN IX? glossopharyngeal nucleus of solitary tract = sensory parasympathetic nucleus IX = visceral motor nucleus ambiguus = motor
The parotid and zygomatic salviary glands are innervated by what? glossopharygeal (IX)parasympathtetic nuc. IX
THe pharyngeal mm. are innervated by what? glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) - nucleus ambiguus
What are the three nuclei associated with CN X? Nucleus of solitary tract - sensory Parasympathetic nucleus X - visceral motor Nucleus ambiggus - motor
The thoracic and abdominal visceral are innervated by what? nucleus of solitary tract - vagus nerve and parasympatethetic nucleus X
The baroreceptors of the aortic arch are innervated by what? nucleus of the solitary tract - vagus nerve
The pharynx, larynx, and palate are innervated how? Nucleus of the solitart tract - vagus
The laryngeal and pharyngeal mm and palate receive motor innervation from what nucleus ambiggus - vagus nerve
T/FThe sequence of vomiting is influenced by the sensory stimulus triggering the reflex? False - always identical sequence
What are the 7 steps to vomiting reflex? 1 - Salivation 2 - Inspire deeply 3 - Elevate soft palate 4 - elevate hyoid bone 5 - Reverse peristalsis 6 - muscular contraction/relaxation 7 - open mouth
What contracts and what relaxes in the 6th step of the vomiting reflex? Contraction = diaphragm, abdominal wall Relax = esophageal sphincter
The vomiting center is located in what area of the brain? medulla oblongata
The vomiting center distributes efferents to what 4 areas motor nucleus XII = tongue parasympathetic nucleus X = stomach/esophagus Nucleus ambiguus = pharygeal mm. Spinal motor nuclei & Intermediolateral nucleus
What part of the spinal nuclei is motor? sensory? venrtal horn = motor, dorsal = sensory
What does the intermediolateral nucleus do? innervates smooth m., cardiac m., and glandular tissue via sympathetic - diaphragm and abdominal m. coordination
What efferent area is responsible for the dog opening its mouth in the vomit reflex (step 7) motor nucelus XII
Steps 3-5 of the vomiting reflex receive innervation from where? nucleus ambigus
step 6 in the vomiting reflex involves contraction of the diaphragm and abdominal mm. - this is innervated by what? intermediolateral nucleus of spinal cord
A lesion of the nucleus ambiguus would cause issues with what two reflexes? vomiting, swallowing
The afferent nerves to the vomiting center consist of what 4 stimuli? 1 - Higher cortical centers = fear, smell, sight, trauma 2 - vestibular receptor = motion sickness 3 - stomach/SI = irritation, distension 4 - chemoreceptor trigger zone
The accessory nerve (XI) has a two root origins what are they? cranial root - medulla oblongata (nucleus ambiguus), spinal root motor nuc. of C1-C6
What nerve innervates the laryngeal, pharyngeal mm. and the neck and shoulder mm.? Accessory nerve (XI)
The internal branch of the accessory nerve joins what other nerve? vagus
Where does the hypoglossal nerve originate from? multiple fibers off of the medullary area
What nerve innervates both intrinsic and extrinsic mm. of the tongue? hypoglossal (XII)
What is the function of the styloglossus and hypoglossus? what innervates them? retract into oral cavity, hypoglossal nerve (XII)
What muscle sticks the tongue out of the mouth? What nevre innervates it? genioglossus - hypoglossal nerve
A lesion of the hypoglossal nerve affects the dog's resting/panting tongue how? Early - deviates toward normal side, Chronic - toward lesion side
A lesion of CN XII affects a dog's tongue when licking how? toward the lesioned side always
the combination ofthe arachnoid membrane and the pia matter is known as what? leptomeninges
the meninges seperating the rostral cerebellum and caudal cerebrum has what name? tentorium cerebelli
A specific part of the meninges seperating R & L hemispheres of the cerebellum is what? Falx cerebri
What allows the cerebellum to be spared initially in brain swelling? tentorium cerebelli
What is the outlet caudal to the peduncel? Lateral recess
What is the area where CSF leaves 4th ventricles to subarachnoid space of the menengies of both sides? Lateral recess
What is the location of the ventricular system
What are the components of the ventricular system Lateral ventricle, third ventricle, cerebral aqueduct, fourth ventricle, central canal
The lateral ventricle is associated with what other structure? caudate nucleus
The 3rd ventricle is associated with what other structures? thalamus, hypothalamus
Cerebral aqueduct is associated with what other structure? midbrain
4th ventricle is associated with what? pons, medulla oblongata
Central canal is associated with what other structures? caudal medulla oblongata, spinal cord
What is the function of the choroid plexus? produce CSF
What is the function of the CSF? (3) - cushion brain, spinal cord,= protect - maintain stable EC enviornment - remove metabolites from CNS
Where is the choroid plexus found (3) - lateral ventricle - 3rd ventricle - 4th ventricle NOT Cerebral aqueduct
What covers the 4th ventricle? medullar velum
what cell lines the ventricles? ependymal cells
What type of junctions are utilized between ependymal cells? tight junctions
What is the pattern of circulation of CSF? lateral ventricle, 3rd ventricle, cerebral aqueduct, 4th ventricle, lateral recess, central canal, (spinal cord) subarachnoid space, dorsal sagittal sinus
What is the motor funciton of the spinal cord? relay motor signals from cerebral cortex & brain stem to spinal motor neurons
What is the sensory function of the spinal cord? relay sensory signals from somatic & visceral sensory receptors to the cerebral cortex, brain stem, and/or other segments of the spinal cord
What is responsible for mediating the spinal reflexes? spinal cord
What is the location of the ascending spinal tract?
Where is the descending spinal tract located?
What is the lateral cervical nucleus responsible for? touch and pain in C1-C2
What is the nucleus thoracicus responsible for? preconception of the trunk and pelvic limbs (T1-L4)
the intermediolateral nucleus is what type of nucleus? sympathetic
What is the intermediolateral nucleus responsible for? cranial, thoracic and abdominal viscera (T1-L3)
What is the sacral parasympathetic nucleus responsible for? pelvic viscera (S2-S3)
What function does the descending tract serve? regulate control skeletal mm.
What function does the ascending tract have? sensory recptor
What does the dorsal plexus supply? dorsal horn and dorsal faniculi
What forms the dorsal plexus? dorsal spinal artery
where is the ventral branch of a spinal artery found? ventral fissure
what supplies the medial portion of the ventral fanicculus central branch
What forms the ventral and lateral plexus? dorsal and ventral spinal a.
What forms the central branch ventral branch of spinal artery
What connect the sympathetic ganglion (dorsal root ganglion) to the sympathetic trunk communicating branch = ramus communicans
How many spinal segments in total? 36
How many cervical segements of the spinal column? how many cervical vertebrae? 8 segments, 7 verterbare
How does the CNS tell the difference between touch and pain? receptor specific sensory modality and specific pathways
Free nerve endings receive what signals? pain, temperature
What receptors sense pain? nociceptor
What receptors sense temperature thermoreceptor
What makes up a Merkel's corpuscle? Merkel cell + sensory terminal end
What senses touch and pressure Merkel's corpuscle
what type of receptor senses pressure mechanoreceptor
where are merkel's corpuscles located? deep in dermis, in joint capsules and some visceral organs
What does the pacinian cropuscle sense? what are these receptors called? sense vibration - mechanoreceptors
What do hair follicles sense? touch
What classification are hair follicle terminals? mechanoreceptors
What does the muscle spindle sense? What classification is this? proprioception (proprioceptor)
What does the golgi-tendon organ sense? proprioception
What two things modulate intensity? number of receptors, frequency of action potential
Where does the signal go after it goes to the spinal cord? - dorsal horn - ventral horn - spinal cord segments
What neurons come from the dorsal horn and send axons to other segments of the spinal cord, brain stem, thalamus, or cerebellum? projection neurons
These neurons are short circuit, local bridges, mediating one neuron to another Interneurons
What type makes up the majority of neurons? interneurons = 80%
What are the two divisions of interneurons? excitatory, inhibitatory
These neurons are in the intermediate substance Autonomic motor neurons
What are the divisions of the motor neurons of the ventral horn? alpha, gamma
What neurons innervate extrafusal fibers? alpha motor neurons in ventral horn
what neurons are also known as LMN lower motor neuron = alpha motor neurons
What does the gamma motor neuron innervate muscle spindle
What neurons mediate the incoming sensory signals to other neurons in the vicinity within the same segment of spinal cord? interneurons
What is the area of skin innervated by sensory fibers of a single spinal root? dermatome
where is the dermatome mapped? sensory corte
A lesion across the entire spinal cord in the region of L2-L3 would have what issues? pelvic limb paralysis
What area do signals have to pass through both coming and going to the cortex internal capsule
What innervates the extrafusal skeletal muscles? alpha motor neruons = LMN
What innervates the intrafusal muscle spindle gamma motor neruons
What type of neuron directly innervates skeletal muscle? lower motor neuron
What is the innervation to skeletal muscle? upper motor neuron, not direct, influence LMN via descending motor tracts
What is the process of a synpase? - axon potential actiates Ca++ channel when it lowers - synpatic vesicles fuse with presynaptic membrane - neurotransmitter leave site - bind to specific receptor
How does the spinal cord convey signals to the skeletal muscle? stimulation of motor neurons in the ventral horn
How does the spinal cord convey signals to the muscle spindle? Stimulation of gamma motor neurons in the ventral horn
How does the motor system determine the contractile force of muscles needed for any given task? Motor units utilized effectively to generate appropriate contractile forces
what is a motor unit? motor neuron and all muscle fibers it innervates
What toxin prevents the release of neurotransmitters from inhibitory interneruons? Tetnus
What cells are predominant on LMN to extensor muscles? renshaw cells
What is the function of the Renshaw cell? self-regulate or inhibit the LMN?
What inhibits/self-regulates the LMN? Renshaw cells
An animal that is very stiff with quivering muscles and fully extended extensor muscles most likely has what? tetnus
How long will the tetnus toxin stay bound? 3 weeks
What is an example that BLOCKS the release of Ach from the presynaptic site? Tick paralysis
An animal with no control of their muscles could have what? Tick paralysis - no transmission from pre-synpatic to post-synaptic
An animal with actual decreased numbers of Ach receptors on the post synaptic site may have what disease? Myasthenia gravis
A receptor deficeit = skeletal muscles are not properly functioning in what disease? Myasthenia gravis
What is the normal sequence of a muscle contraction? Ach binds to receptor - detaches - enzyme breaks up - will continue as long as muscle contraction is needed
What is the treatment of myasthenia gravis? anti-achetocholine -esterase - enzyme does not break up Ach - keep Ach around receptors as long as possible
What is a relatively simple, stereotyped motor response to sensory input? reflex
What reflex maintains posture and muscle tone and protects the body by quickly responding to danger or sudden changes in the surroundings? spinal reflex?
What does the spinal reflex do? Maintains posture and muscle tone, protects body by responding quickly
How does the spinal cord mediate the local reflex? Circuitry relay of sensory signals to motor neurons
What reflex is induced by stretching the skeletal muscle? myotatic reflex
What nerve is involved in the quadriceps reflex? femoral
What is the origin of the quadriceps reflex? L4-6
What nerve is being tested in the triceps reflex? Radial n.
What is the origin of the nerve of the trcipes reflex? C6-8, T1-2
What reflex is the triceps brachii associated with? triceps brachii
The monosynaptic reflex requires how many neurons? 2 - one sensory, one motor
Polysynaptic reflex requires how many neurons? 3 - sensory, interneuron, motor
What type of spinal reflex is composed of a minimum of 3 neurons? reflex arc
What type of reflex is the flexor/withdrawl reflex? polysynpatic
What reflex is being tested by pinching a dogs toe? withdrawl/flexor
What nerve is tested in the perineal reflex? pudendal nerve
Where does the pudendal nerve originate? S1-3
What muscle is associated with the perineal reflex? anal sphincter
What is the path of the descending tract? cerebral cortex to skeletal muscle
What is the path of the ascending tract? Sensory receptor to thalamus
An animal with a lesion in the Left C1-C5 area would display how pertaining to the myotactic reflex? present in all four limbs, possibly hyperreflexic in left limbs
A lesion in of the left side in C6-T1/T2 would present how pertaining to the myotactic reflex? absent in L thoracic, hyperreflexic in L pelvic
A lesion of the left side between T2-L3 would present how concerning the myotactic reflex? Present in all four limbs, possibly hyperreflexic in the left pelvic limb
A lesion of the left side between the L4-S1 would present how by myotactic reflex? Present in both throacic limbs and R pelvic limb, absent in L pelvic
This portion of the dorsal horn is only found in the area of C1-C2 and is a projection off of the dorsal horn lateral cervical nucleus
This nucleus is found througout the dorsal horn dorsal horn nuclei
THis segment is in the thoracic + upper lumbar portions of the spinal chord and is found at the base of the dorsal horn? Nucleus throacicus
What tract is responsible for only pain and touch? speinocervicothalamic tract
What spinal tract mediates pain, touch, and temperature spinothalamic tract
This tract runs from the lateral cervical nucleus to free nerve endings/terminal hair follicles? Spinocervicothalamic tract
The spinocervicalthalmic tract is contralateral or ipsilateral? ipsilateral
This tract is one long wire from the thalamus clear to free nerve endings or hair follicle terminals spinothalmic tract
THe spinothalamic tract is contralateral or ipsilateral? contralateral
A lesion of the spinal chord on the left side between C1-C5 would have what effect? none - all limbs still sense pain
A lesion of the spinal chord on the left side between C6-T1 would have what effect? L thoracic deficient in pain/temp/touch
A lesion of the spinal chord on the left side between T3-L3 would have what effect? none - all limbs sense pain
Created by: 33805024



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