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DC Antibiotics

Pharmacology Antimicrobials

QuestionAnswer
Aminoglycoside Drugs Amikacin, Apramycin, Neomycin, Gentamicin, Dihydrostreptomycin
Aminoglycoside Spectrum Gram negative aerobes
Aminoglycoside MOA Bacteriocidal - Blocks protein synthesis at 30S
Aminoglycoside Regulation No extralabel use in cattle, No gentamicin in food horses, No neomycin in veal calves
Aminoglycoside Distribution Does not cross barrier membranes, Accumulates in renal cortex and inner ear
Aminoglycoside Metabolism none
Aminoglycoside Excretion unchanged in urine
Aminoglycoside ADE Nephrotoxicity, Ototoxicity, Occ. muscular blockade
Beta Lactams Penicillins, Aminopenicillins, Cephalosporins, Carbepenems
Penicillins Spectrum Everything
Penicillin Regulations Illegal in food horses & egg producing turkeys, may be found in violation w/racing dogs or horses
Penicillin MOA Bacteriocidal - inhibits transpeptidase during cell wall synthesis
Penicillins Excretion Active tubular secretion, slower in neonates
Penicillins ADE Anaphylaxis, contact dermatitis, serum sickness, IHA in horses
Penicillins Distribution Goes into milk, crosses placenta
Aminopenicillin Drugs Amoxicillin, Ampicillin
Aminopenicillin Spectrum Everything + spirochetes
Aminopenicillin MOA Bacteriocidal - inhibits bacterial wall synthesis via transpeptidase
Aminopenicillin Distribution Rapidly to most body fluids except eye, CSF, prostate fluids
Aminopenicillin Excretion Unchanged in urine. 10-25% of amoxicillin is excreted as penicilloic acid
Aminopenicillin ADE Diarrhea and malabsorption (calves)
Cephalosporin Group 1 Drugs 1st Generation, parenteral: Cefazolin, Cephalothin, Cephapirin
Cephalosporin Group 2 Drugs 1st Generation, oral: Cefadroxil, Cephalexin
Cephalosporin Group 3 Drugs 2nd generation, both: Cefoxitin, Cefuroxime, Cefotetan
Cephalosporin Group 4 Drugs 3rd generation, parenteral: Cefotaxime, Ceftiofur, Ceftiaxone, Ceftizoxime, Cefovecin
Cephalosporin Group 5 Drugs 3rd generation, oral: Cefixime, Cefpodoxime
Cephalosporin Group 6 Drugs 3rd generation, parenteral: Ceftazidime
Cephalosporin Group 7 Drugs 4th generation: Cefquinome, Cefepime
Cephalosporin Group 1 Spectrum Gram + only
Cephalosporin Group 2 Spectrum Gram + only
Cephalosporin Group 3 Spectrum Gram +, Gram - anaerobes, Enterobacter
Cephalosporin Group 4 Spectrum Everything except Staph aureus
Cephalosporin Group 5 Spectrum Everything except Staph aureus or Pseudomonas
Cephalosporin Group 6 Spectrum Pseudomonas
Cephalosporin Group 7 Spectrum Pseudomonas
Cephalosporin MOA Bacteriocidal - inhibition of cell wall synthesis via transpeptidase
Cephalosporin Distribution Most fluids (no barriers except 3rd gen), found in bile
Cephalosporin Metabolism Liver
Cephalosporin Excretion Renal tubular secretion
Cephalosporin ADE Distrurbs normal GI flora of rabbites and horses, Crosses placenta, in milk, anemia
Carbepenems (Penicillin) Drugs Imipenem, Meropenem, Ertapenem, Faropenem, Doripenem
Carbepenem Spectrum Everything
Carbepenem MOA Bacteriocidal - inhibits cell wall synthesis
Carbepenem Distribution Most body fluids including placenta and milk, not CSF
Carbepenem Excretion Both renal and non-renal
Carbepenem ADE GI effects, renal dz, CNS toxicity, phlebitis if too rapid IV injection
Amoxicillin-Clavulanate (Clavamox) Spectrum Everything except Pseudomonas
Amoxicillin-Clavulanate MOA Amoxi: inhibits transpeptidase and cell wall / Clavulanate: binds irreversibly to beta lactamase to inactivate
Amoxicillin-Clavulanate Excretion Mostly unchanged in urine
Amoxicillin-Clavulanate ADE Disturbs GI flora or rabbits & horses, in milk, GI effects in dogs/cats
Chloramphenicol Spectrum Everything
Chloramphenicol Regulation Illegal in food animals
Chloramphenicol MOA BacterioSTATIC - binds to 30S subunit blocking protein synthesis
Chloramphenicol Distribution Diffuses into all body tissues incl. milk, highest in liver and kidneys
Chloramphenicol Metabolism Rapidly metabolized in liver by glucuronic acid
Chloramphenicol Excretion Most as inactive metabolite in kidneys
Chloramphenicol ADE Dyscasias in cats, inhibits P450, anorexia, myelosuppresion, aplastic anemia in humans
Florfenicol Spectrum G+ aerobes, G- resp/fastidious pathogens
Florfenicol Regulation not labeled for dairy or veal, withdrawal times for catfish and cattle
Florfenicol MOA BacterioSTATIC - binds to 30S to inhibit protein synthesis
Florfenicol Metabolism Liver, florfenicol amine is longest lived metabolite in liver
Florfenicol Excretion some in urine and bile as both unchanged and metabolites
Florfenicol ADE high in goat milk, diarrhea in horses, anal problems in pigs, decr. eating in cattle
Fluroquinolone Drugs Enrofloxacin, Difloxacin, Orbifloxacin, Marbofloxacin
Fluroquinolone Spectrum All gram+ & mycoplasma
Fluroquinolone Regulations Illegal in food animals
Fluroquinolone MOA Bacteriocidal - inhibits topoisomerase
Fluroquinolone Distribution Almost everywhere (except CNS and eye)
Fluroquinolone Metabolism Liver, enrofloxacin -> ciprofloxacin
Fluroquinolone Excretion Urine except difloxacin through bile
Fluroquinolone ADE Retinal degeneration in cats, present in milk, arthropathies in young animals, oral ulcers in horses
Lincosamide Drugs Clindamycin, Lincomycin
Lincosamide Spectrum All anaerobes
Lincosamide Regulations Not labeled for chickens for eggs
Lincosamide MOA BacterioSTATIC - inhibit protein synthesis via 50S unit
Lincosamide Distribution Highly lipid soluble so may be higher in tissues
Lincosamide Metabolism Liver except clindamycin (urine)
Lincosamide Excretion Mostly in urine and bile. Small amounts in pancreatic and prostate fluids
Lincosamide ADE Found in milk, Enterocolitis in pocket pets/horses, GI effects in dogs/cats
Macrolide Drugs Tulathromycin, Erythromycin, Tilmicosin, Tylosin
Macrolide Spectrum Everything incl. Spirochetes (except Pseudomonas, Enterobacter)
Macrolide MOA BacterioSTATIC - inhibit protein synthesis via 50S subunit
Macrolide Distribution Highly lipid soluble so may be higher in tissues, crosses placenta
Macrolide Metabolism Liver
Macrolide ADE GI effects in dogs/cats, found in milk
Metronidazole (Nitroimidazole) Spectrum All anaerobes and antiprozoals
Metronidazole Regulations Illegal in food animals
Metronidazole MOA Inhibits nucleic acid synthesis
Metronidazole Distribution Horses: peak in peritoneal, synovial, CSF
Metronidazole Metabolism Liver
Metronidazole ADE CNS signs in cats/dogs/horses
Potentiated Sulfonamide Drugs Trimethoprim, Ormethoprim, Primethamine, Ormetoprim
Potentiated Sulfonamide Spectrum Everything except Pseudomonas
Potentiated Sulfonamide MOA BacterioSTATIC - deprive cells of essential nucleic acids and proteins
Potentiated Sulfonamide Metabolism Liver mostly, but some other tissues
Potentiated Sulfonamide Excretion Urine - Glomerular filtration of parent drug and tubular excretion of metabolites
Potentiated Sulfonamide ADE Blood dyscrasia, myelosuppression, Crystallization in urinary tract, teratogen, thyroid hyperplasia in pigs
Sulfonamide Drugs Sulfadimethoxine, Sulfamethazine, sulfamerazine, slfathiazole, sulfanilamide, sulfachlorapyridazine
Sulfonamide Spectrum All aerobes except Pseudomonas
Sulfonamide Regulations No extra label use in dairy cattle
Sulfonamide MOA BacterioSTATIC - interferes with folic acid synthesis, compete with PABA
Sulfonamide Distribution Crosses placenta and BBB
Sulfonamide Metabolism Liver, some in tissues or liver
Sulfonamide Excretion Urine
Sulfonamide ADE Teratogen, Crystallization in Urinary tract, homrrhagic syndrome in chickens/dogs, cutaneous drug eruption in dogs
Tetracycline Drugs Oxytetracycline, Chlortetracycline, Tetracycline
Tetracycline Spectrum Everything (incl. spirochetes and tetracyclines) except Pseudomonas
Tetracycline MOA BacterioSTATIC - inhibits protein synthesis via 50S subunit
Tetracycline Distribution Lipid soluble so high in tissues, Doxy is most soluble
Tetracycline Metabolism Not biotransformed much before elimination
Tetracycline Excretion Most by renal, Doxy goes into intestines where it's inactive
Tetracycline ADE Young will have slower renal excretion, Nephrotoxicity, CV dysfunction, tooth discoloration
Dihydropyrimidine/Trimethoprim MOA Inhibit folic acid synthesis
Glycopeptide Drugs Vancomycin
Glycopeptide Spectrum Gram+ only
Glycopeptide Regulations Should not be used in multiresistant infections or extra label in food animals
Glycopeptide MOA Bacteriocidal - Inhibits cell wall synthesis and bacterial cell membrane permeability
Glycopeptide Distribution Widely distributed into all fluids except CSF
Glycopeptide Excretion Primarily renal, some in bile
Glycopeptide ADE Nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity
Function of Clavulanic acid Bind Beta lactamase to improve drug activity against some organisms
Illegal Drugs in Food Animals Chloramphenicols, Clenbuterol, DES, Dimetridazole, Ipronidazole, Metronidazole, Furazolidone, Nitrofurazone, Sulfonamides in lactating cows, Flurquinolones, Glycopeptides, Phenylbutazone in dairy cattle
Susceptibility and Resistance concentration of drug required to inhibit growth of an isolate as it relates to the likihood of clinical success
Susceptibility testing methods Disk diffusion, micro/macrobroth dilution, E test
Rifampin spectrum Rodococcus equi (not specifically approved for animals)
Spectinomycin spectrum All aerobes and mycoplasma
Spectinomycin MOA BacterioSTATIC - 30S subunit without toxic effects of aminoglycosides
Drugs that treat mycoplasma Tetracyclines, Macrolides, Fluroquinolones
Drugs that affect DNA/RNA synthesis Sulfonamides, Diaminopyrimidines, Fluroquinolones
Drugs affecting protein synthesis Macrolides, Lincosamides, Tetracyclines, Fenicols, Aminoglycosides
Drugs affecting cell wall integrity Beta lactams: Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Vancomycin
Created by: ferretinmyshoes