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Anatomy exam 2


What is the line of pleural reflection? LPP defines limit of pleural cavity
Where is the vertebral LPP? costal pleura reflects ventrally to form mediastinal pleura - runs along bodies of thoracic vertebrae
Sternal LPP location? costal reflects dorsally to form mediastinal pleura - get acute angle (costomediastinal recess) where basal lung border extends.
Diaphragmatic LPP Costal pleura reflects onto diaphragmatic pleura - narrow acute space is costodiaphragmatic recess - border of lung fills space on expansion
Location of equine line of pleural reflection? 8th CCJ - sternal end of 9th rib - curves to middle of cranial border of last rib
LPP in cattle? 8th CCJ - gentle curve to middle of 11th rib - to 12th rib, 15cm from vertebral end, just below iliocostalis lumborum m.
Pig LPP 7th CCJ - gentle curve to middle last rib
sheep/goat LPP 8th costal cartilage to 9th CCJ - curve to 13th rib 5cm dorsal to CCJ - medial curve to cranial border of 1st lumbar transverse process
Where would you perform an equine thoracocentesis? low in 7th intercostal space, cranial to 8th rib, level of CCJ
What are the boundaries of the area of equine lung auscultation? Line from olecranon to caudal angle of scapula, then line from here to tuber coxae (along epaxial muscles) - third line is from olecranon to upper 16th rib
Area of bovine lung auscultation? line of long head of triceps, epaxial muscles, and line from olecranon to dorsal part of 11th rib
Where would you listen to rumen sounds? Left paralumbar fossa
What are the 1st and 2nd heart sounds? 1st = closing of AV valves 2nd = closing of aortic/pulmonary
What is the puncta maxima? the area of maximum heart sound Left AV - low 5th ICS Aortic - high in left 4th ICS Pulmonary - low in left 3rd ICS right AV - low in right 3-4th ICS
Pig heart location 2nd - 5th rib
Sheep/Ox/Goat heart position 2nd ICS - 5th ICS
Horse heart position? 2nd ICS - 6th ICS horizontal lines from point of shoulder and olecranon
Horse vertebral formula C7 T18 L5-6 S5 Ca15-21
Cow vertebral formula C7 T13 L6 S5 Ca18-20
Pig vertebral formula C7 T13 L6 S5 Ca18-20
Pig vertebral formula C7 T14-15 L5-7 S4 Ca20-23
Dog vertebral formula C7 T13 L7 S3 Ca20-24
Sheep vertebral formula C7 T13 L6-7 S4 Ca16-18
Describe thoracic vertebrae Long spinous processes (narrow cranial border, wider caudal with groove) Short bodies and flattened extremities Short transverse process (articulate with rib tubercle)
Where is the anticlinal vertebra? Dog: 10-11 Pig/goat: 12 Ox: 13 Horse: 16
Compare ox and horse ribs Ox: body is longer, flatter, wider, and less curved - enlarged ventral extremity
# and type of ribs in Horse 18 ribs 8 true, 10 false, 7 sternebrae
# and type of ribs in pig 14 ribs 7 true, 7 false, 6 sternebrae
# an type of ribs in ruminants (ox, sheep, goat) 13 ribs 8 true, 5 false, 7 sternebrae
# and type of ribs in cats/dogs 13 ribs 9 true, 4 false, 8 sternebrae
What ligament spans between 2 rib heads? intercapital lig
A ligament from rib tubercle to transverse process Costotransverse lig
Name the epaxial thoracic muscles Lateral system: iliocostalis and longissimus = ribeye Medial system: spinalis, transversospinalis, semispinalis thoracis, multifidus, rotators
What additional pectoral part is present in large animals but not the dog? the subclavius part of the deep part of the pectorals (they do have transverse and descending superficial, and ascending deep)
What makes up the hump of bulls? massive rhomboideus muscle and fat
Define synsarcosis means by which muscles are used to attach different parts of the bony skeleton to one another - attaches bones of thoracic limb to thorax (ascending pectoral, serratus ventralis, rhomboideus, trapezius)
What is the dorsoscapular ligament? Modified thickening of thoracolumbar fascia in area of withers - consists of laminae - goes through serratus ventralis to attach to medial surface of scapula
List muscles of inspiration and expiration Inspiration: cranial serratus dorsalis, external intercostals, rib levators, rectus thoracis, diaphragm Expiration: caudal serratus dorsalis, internal intercostals, retractors of ribs, transversus thoracis
Orientation of intercostals? internal = caudodorsal external = caudoventral
3 parts of the diaphragm and attachment sites? lumbar, costal sternal lumbar = attaches to ventral longitudinal ligament (right crus at L3-4, left crus at L1-2) Costal part - from last 3-4 ribs, attaches to 8-10 costal cartilages and ribs caudal to 10 Sternal - from xiphoid cartilage
What are the openings in the diaphragm? aortic and esophageal hiatuses in lumbar part (aortic = aorta, azygous vein, thoracic duct; esophageal = esophaus, dorsal and ventral vagal trunks, blood vessels) Caval foramen through central tendon (dense U shaped c.t. - forms cupula)
Cranial extent of diaphragm? Vertex = cupula diaphragmatis 6th rib to 6th ICS
T/F All lobes of the lung are completely surrounded by visceral pleura FALSE
Space where only thing separating thoracic from abdominal cavity is the pleura and peritoneum Lumbocostal arch (contains sympathetic trunks, splanchnic nerves)
The brachial plexus passes through this muscle, the phrenic nerve originates on the lateral surface, and it has 3 parts (mostly) Scalenus - dorsal, middle, ventral bodies in pigs dorsal absent in horse, ventral absent in carnivores
This space contains the accessory lobe of the lung mediastinal recess
Which species have a fenestrated mediastinum? Carnivores and horses - rare in sheep NO fenestrations in cattle, goats, pigs
What forms the mediastinum? Fusion of medial surfaces of two pleural sacs
Lobes of horse lung? Left: cranial and caudal Right: cranial, caudal, accessory horse = simplest
Pig lung lobes? Left: divided cranial, caudal Right: cranial (tracheal bronchus), middle, caudal, accessory
Ruminant lung lobes? Left: divided cranial, caudal Right: Cranial (divided and connected to tracheal bronchus), middle, caudal, accessory
Carnivore lung lobes? Left: divided cranial, caudal Right: cranial, middle, caudal, accessory
Lung lobulation by species? Carnivores = none Pigs = entire surface Ox = very evident on entire surface Goat = cranial and middle only Sheep = essentially absent Horse = not distinct, small irregular lobes
Thymus extent by species? Ox - cranial to thoracic Pig - same as ox Horse - cervical to thoracic Dog - just thoracic
Where does the lymph vessel joins the venous system? Venous angle Right venous angle - thoracic duct, left jugular trunk Right venous angle - right lymphatic duct (right jugular duct) They empty into confluence of internal and external jugular or ipsilateral subclavian vein
# cysterna chyli in each species, and where does the thoracic duct enter into thoracic cavity? Single: R,P Double: D,H thoracic duct passes through aortic hiatus in D, P, H Through lumbocostal arch - R Goat - slit in right crus
4 main categories of lymphocenters? Dorsal thoracic (thoracic aortic and intercostal), ventral thoracic (cranial and caudal sternal), mediastinal (cranial, middle, caudal), bronchial (left, right, middle, cranial tracheobronchial)
The thoracic aortic lymphocenter (part of dorsal thoracic) is located where? What species have it? it is found ventral to the sympathetic trunk Constant in all but dog
Intercostal lymphocenter (part of dorsal thoracic) is found where, and in what species? it is found dorsal to the sympathetic trunk Not found in pig, sometimes found in dog (IC)
Cranial sternal lymphocenter (part of ventral thoracic) - what species? Constant in ALL species (IC in horse)
Caudal sternal lymphocenter (part of ventral thoracic) Constant in ox IC in horse and sheep
Which species have cranial mediastinal lymphocenter? ALL species
Which species have middle mediastinal lymphocenters? all but dog and pig (so found in horses and ruminants)
Whic species have caudal mediastinal lymphocenters? (found between aorta and esophagus) all but dog (horse is IC) so absent in carnivores
Which species have left tracheobronchial lymphocenters? All species
The pericardium is made of how many serous layers? Name them. 3 layers mediastinal pleura (or pericardial pleura) Parietal pericardium Visceral pericardium (epicardium)
Where is the fibrous parietal pericardium layer? What ligaments does it make? It is a thick tough membrane between mediastinal pleura and parietal pericardium. It makes up the phrenicopericardial ligament (dog - from pericardium to diaphragm) and the sternopericardial ligaments - from pericardium to sternum, 2 in pigs
How much fluid is found in the pericardial cavity? 4-6ml
How is the heart suspended in the thoracic cavity? by loose endothoracic fascia - attached to fibrous pericardium
What is cranial-caudal extent of the heart? 3rd to 6th ribs
Where is the base of hte heart? imaginary line through middle of first rib
Which side of the body is more of the heart found on? the left side (important because auricular surface closer to body wall, hear heart sounds better)
What species have bilateral coronary type? pig and horse
what species have left coronary circulation type? sheep, goat, ox
Which species have a left azygous vein? Which have a right? Which have both? Pig has left - drains into coronary sinus Horse has right - drains to CVC Sheep, goat, ox - left drains to coronary, right drains to CVC
Which species have distinctly notched auricular edges? ox, sheep, goat pig has few distinct notches
Left side of heart: surface name, groove name, intercostal contacts auricular surface paraconal interventricular groove contacts ICS 3-6 origin of pulmonary artery is between auricles
Right side of heart: surface name, groove name, intercostal contacts atrial surface subsinuosal interventricular groove (since its below sinus venarum of RA) contacts ICS 3-4
Aortic and pulmonary valves are what type? semilunar (have right and left cusp and septal cusp)
the L AV valve is what type? bicuspid (mitral) has parietal and septal cusps
the R AV valve is what type? tricuspid has parietal, septal, and angular cusps
Where are pectinate muscles found? they are ridges inside the auricles
What are trabeculae carneae roughened areas on wall of ventricle - bands of tissue
What extends from the septal to the parietal wall of the ventricle and is part of the heart's conduction system? trabeculae septomarginalis
What is the intervenous tubercle? tissue that diverts blood from cranial and caudal VC down through the right AV opening
Where is the fossa ovalis? caudal to intervenous tubercle, it is a remnant of the foramen ovale
Where/what is the coronary sinus? drainage of great coronary vein - found just ventral to where Caudal VC domes into sinus venarum
what is the ductus venosus? shunt through the fetal liver
What is the ductus arteriosus? shunt between pulmonary trunk and aorta in fetus
Trace the path of electrical impulse through the heart SA node -- AV node (ventral end of atrial septum) -- AV bundle -- L and R bundle branches
The skeleton of the heart consists of what? tendinous, cartilaginous, and osseous tissue situated around orifices of great vessels and between atria and ventricles
Valve positions in horses RAV: 4th ICS right P: 3rd ICS A: 4th ICS M/LAV: 5th
Ox valve positions RAV: 3rd ICS P: 3rd ICS A: 4th rib on left M: 4th ICS
Dog valve positions RAV: 4th on right P: 4th rib on left A: 5th rib on left M: 5th ICS left
In what species does the left subclavian artery leave the aorta separately? dog and pig
What species have a single brachiocephalic trunk off the artery? ruminant and horse
The internal thoracic artery is continued as what? the cranial superficial epigastric artery
What are the branches of the left subclavian artery in ruminants? costocervical, superficial cervical, internal thoracic, and continued as axillary
What are the branches of the ruminants costocervical trunk? vertebral, dorsal scapular, deep cerivcal, superior intercostal
Branches of horse left subclavian costocervical trunk (dorsal scapular and superior intercostal) deep cervical vertebral superficial cervical internal thoracic continues as axillary
The internal jugular vein is absent in what species? small ruminants, horses
Created by: kwiller



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