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CVM TAMU neuro

QuestionAnswer
I - Olfactory cribiform plate - loss of smell (decreased appetite, etc)
II - Optic optic canal - lose sight, menace response, sight avoidance reflex, and light reflex
III - Oculomotor (ciliary ganglion) orbital fissure - droopy eyelid (ptosis), fixed dilated pupil (mydriasis), ventrolateral strabismus, absence of pupillary light reflex
IV - Trochlear orbital fissure - eye rotation laterally
V - Trigeminal ophthalmic orbital fissure - cutaneous anesthesia
V - Trigeminal maxillary rostral alar foramen - cutaneous anesthesia
V - Trigeminal mandibular oval foramen - cutaneous anesthesia, dropped jaw, atrophy of mastication mm.
VI - Abducens orbital fissure - medial strabismus
VII - Facial stylomastoid foramen - MANY signs!
VIII - Vestibulocochlear (spiral and vestibular ganglion) DOESN'T exit braincase - deafness, nystagmus, ataxia, head tilt, positional strabismus
IX - Glossopharyngeal (otic and glossopharyngeal ganglia) tympanooccipital fissure - difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), regurgitaiton of food, lose gag reflex
X - Vagus (ganglia…) tympanooccipital fissure - LOTS! Dysphagia, dysphonia, inspiratory dysnea, megaesophagus…
XI - Accessory tympanooccipital fissure - atrophy
XII - Hypoglossal hypoglossal canal - dysphagia, lingual paralysis, atrophy
Prosencephalon Forebrain - Splits into Telencephalon & Diencephalon
Telencephalon From Prosencephalon - gives Cerebrum, Cerebellar hemispheres (cortex, centrum, Basal Nuclei)
Diencephalon From Prosencephalon - Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Metathalamus
Mesencephalon Midbrain
Rhombencephalon Hindbrain - Splits into metencephalon and myelencephalon
Metencephalon Pons & Cerebullum
Myelencephalon medulla
Brain stem Mesencephalon, metencephalon, Myelencephalon
K9 & Feline spinal cord segments 36
Horse spinal cord segments 42
Cattle spinal cord segments 37
10 lesion locations Forebrain, midbrain, pons, cerebellum, medulla, C1 - C5, C6 - T2, T3 - L3, L4 - S2/S3, S1 or S2 - Cd5
5 Neuro concepts 1 - The NS is divided into 2 parts; 2 - The functional unit of the NS is the neuron (they ALL have 4 parts); 3 - There are 3 types of neurons and 3 functional systems; 4 - two types of motor neurons; 5 - Lesions are in the PNS or CNS
4 Neuron parts Dendrites, Soma, Axon, Synapse
The frontal lobe Initates motor movements
The parietal lobe Pain and proprioception
The occipital lobe vision and vision association
The temporal lobe hearing and sound association
Fissures vs sulci fissures - go down to white matter; Sulci - goes to gray matter
GSE voluntary motor – all spinal nerves and cranial nerves III, IV, V, VI, VII, IX, X, XI, XII (lower motor neurons).
GVE autonomic motor – all spinal nerves and cranial nerves III, VII, IX, X, XI (lower motor neurons).
SSA special senses afferents – sight, hearing, cranial nerves II, VIII only.
SVA taste, smell, cranial nerves I, VII, IX, X only.
GVA sensory to internal environment – all spinal nerves, same cranial nerves as GVE (blood pressure, heart rate, blood gas regulation, smooth muscle and gland regulation, visceral organs, blood vessels).
GSA sensory to the environment – skin and mucous membranes, joints (pain, temperature, touch, pressure, proprioception, vibration)
Location of cord segments C1 and C2 both are under C1 vertebra
Location of cord segments C3-C8 They are located in the the vertebra of one ahead of their number (C4 vert has C5 segment)
Location of cord segments T1-T12 They are located in the vertebra approximately 1 vertebra ahead of their number.
Location of cord segments of T12-L2 They are in the vertebra of the same number
Location of cord segment of L3 & L4 L3
Location of cord segments of L5-L7 L4
Location of cord segments of S1-S3 L5
Where does the spinal cord end
Spinal nerve exits C1 - exits the lateral vertebral foramen; C2-C7 exits in front of the vertebra of same number; C8 - exits behind C-7; T1 - Cd5 all exit behind the vertebra of it's number.
What divides the spinal cord into symmetrical right and left halves dorsal median sulcus and septum and ventral median fissure
Where in the gray matter are inter and projection neurons found central intermediate and dorsal column
What would you find in the lateral intermediate gray horn cell bodies of the GVE LMNs that travel to autonomic ganglia
Where in the gray matter are GVE LMNs and what do they project to ventral horn, skeletal muscle
What is the division of white matter called that lies between the entrance of the dorsal roots dorsal funiculus
What is the division of white matter called that lies between the exit of the ventral roots of each side ventral funiculus
What three cranial nerves do not contain GSE fibers Olfactory, oculomotor, and vestibulocochlear
What 4 cranial nerves contain GSA fibers trigeminal, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus
What two cranial nerves contain SSA optic and vestibulocochlear
What spinal cord segments contribute to the radial nerve C7-T2
Where are the cell bodies of UMNs located the brain
UMNs are mostly excitatory or inhibitory inhibitory
What's the autonomous zone of the radial n. in the dog lateral forearm and dorsal paw
What's the autonomous zone of the musculocutaneous n. in the dog  medial arm and forearm
What's the autonomous zone of the ulnar n. in the dog caudal forearm and 5th digit
What's the autonomous zone of the axillary nerve of the dog lateral arm
What is the autonomous zone of the saphenous n. in the dog medial thigh
What's the autonomous zone of the sciatic nerve in the dog caudolateral thigh to hock
What's the autonomous zone of the peroneal nerve in the dog craniolateral crus and dorsal pes
What's the autonomous zone of the tibial nerve in the dog plantar pes
What spinal nerves contribute to the brachial plexus C6-T2
What spinal nerves contribute to the lumbosacral plexus L4-S3
What spinal nerves contribute to the radial nerve C7-T2
What spinal nerves contribute to the sciatic nerve L6-S2
What spinal nerves contribute to the femoral nerve L4-L6
What spinal nerves contribute to the pudendal nerve S1-S3
Lower motor neuron fibers are found in all cranial nerves except three, which are olfactory, optic, and vestibulicochlear
LMNs are found in which spinal/peripheral nn. all
Which 4 cranial nn. carry GVE autonomic fibers oculomotor, facial, glossopharyngeal and vagus
What three types of cells do interneurons recieve info from afferent neurons, projection neurons or other interneurons
What three types of cells do interneurons synapse on projection neurons, other interneurons or motor neurons
Suprascapular n. (Segments, cutaneous zone, when damaged) C6-7, no CZ, shoulder sweeny or popped/slipped shoulders
Musculocutaneous n (Segments, cutaneous zone, when damaged) C6-8, CZ = Medial forearm to just below the carpus, Inability to flex the cubital joint
Radial n (Segments, cutaneous zone, when damaged) C7-T2, CZ = craniolateral forearm and dorsal aspects of the digits 1-3, High damage - non weight bearing + ; Low damage - inability to extend carpal and digital joints
Median and Ulnar (Segments, cutaneous zone, when damaged) C7-T1, CZ = caudal forearm + all of digit 5 (ulnar) + palmar surface of digits 1 - 4; damage - sinking carpus
Lateral Thoracic n (Segments, cutaneous zone, when damaged) C8-T1, CZ = none, Damage = loss of cutaneous truncii reflex
Brachial Plexus Avulsion vs Radial n damage Brachial plexus will display loss of CZ and Horner's syndrome (ptosis, ansicoria)
Lumbosacral plexus location L4-S2 (dog) and L3-S2 (horse/cow)
Femoral n (Segments, cutaneous zone, when damaged) L4-L6 (dog), L3-L5 (horse), CZ = Medial, distal thigh, stifle, leg, hock and down to the fetlock in the horse (digit one in k-9), Damage = no weight bearing, quick step, patellar reflex is absent
Obturator n (Segments, cutaneous zone, when damaged) L4-L6 (dog), L3-L5 (horse), CZ = none, damage = splayed legs w/o traction or distotia with down cow
Sciatic n (Segments, cutaneous zone, when damaged) L6-S2 and L5-S2 horse, CZ = lateral stifle and crus, Damage = foot knuckles over, CAN bear weight.
Peroneal n. (Segments, cutaneous zone, when damaged) L6 and L7 in dog (L5 - L6 horse), CZ = dorsum of leg and digits, damage = knuckling over and loss of sensation
Tibial n. (Segments, cutaneous zone, when damaged) L7-S2 in the dog (L6-S2 horse), CZ = plantar aspect of digits and entire hoof, Damage = lowered hock
Sacral Plexus location S1-Cd5 dog (S3-Cd5 horse)
Pelvic n (Segments, cutaneous zone, when damaged) (AUTONOMIC ONLY) S1-S3 in the dog (S3-S5 horse), CZ = tone in the bladder and rectum, damage = urination, defication, and sexual dysfunction
Pudendal n (Segments, cutaneous zone, when damaged) S1-S3 in the dog (S3-S5 in the horse), CZ = perineum and rectum, damage = fecal and urinary incontinence, protrusion of penis from sheath, and loss of perineal reflex
4 components of a reflex Afferent neuron, intereuron, LMN, effector organ
Two types of spinal reflex Monosynaptic - myotatic reflexes; Multisynaptic - withdrawl reflex
Bicep reflex (Afferent, Efferent, type of reflex, location of tap) Afferent& Efferent = musculocutaneous, Monosynaptic, tap on medial elbow on bicep tendon, Unreliable
Triceps reflex (Afferent, Efferent, type of reflex, location of tap) Afferent & Efferent = radial n, monosynaptic, tap tricep tendon at olecranon, unreliable
Extensor carpi radialis reflex (Afferent, Efferent, type of reflex, location of tap) Afferent & Efferent = radial n, monosynaptic, tap the muscle right above elbow, unreliable
Created by: cproth