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Vet Embryology Final

TAMU CVM Embryo final

QuestionAnswer
What are the divisions of the mesoderm? Paraxial, intermediate, splanchnic, somatic
What 4 body folds establish the ventral body surface? Head, tail, Right and left lateral folds
What two area of the embryo have ectoderm contacting endoderm? Buccopharyngeal membrane & cloacal
What 3 rudimentary organs start cranial to the head? Septum transversum, heart tube, buccopharyngeal membrane
What folds develop to close off the body cavities? Pleuropericardial folds (seperates the plueural and cardial cavities), pleuroperitoneal fold (seperates pleural and peritoneal cavities)
What is the blood supply of the foregut tube? Celiac Artery
What is the blood supply of the midgut tube? Cranial mesenteric artery
What is the blood supply of the hindgut tube? Caudal mesenteric artery
What makes up the 1st pharyngeal arch? Maxillary and mandibular prominences
What comes from the 2nd and 3rd Pharyngeal arches? The hyoid bones
What comes from the 4th Pharyngeal arch? The larynx
What comes from the 5th Pharyngeal arch? Nothing - it doesn't form
What comes from the 6th Pharyngeal arch? The larynx
What is between the pharyngeal arches? Pharyngeal clefts
What are the skeletal and muscular derivatives from the 1st arch? What is the innervation? Skeletal - incus and malleus; Muscular - Muscles of mastication; Innervation - CN 5
What are the skeletal and muscular derivatives from the 2nd arch? What is the innervation? Skeletal - stapes & a portion of the hyoid bones; muscular - muscles of facial expression; Innervation - CN VII
What are the skeletal and muscular derivatives of the 3rd arch? What is the innervation? Skeletal - contributes to the hyoid bones; Muscular - stylopharyngeus m. ; Innervation CN IX
What are the skeletal and muscular derivatives of the 4th arch? What is the innervation? Skeletal - contributes to the larynx; Muscular - pharyngeal constrictors & cricothryoid; Innervation CN X
What are the skeletal and muscular derivatives of the 5th arch? What is the innervation? Nothing - it doesn't form
What are the skeletal and muscular derivatives of the 6th arch? What is the innervation? Skeletal - contributes to the larynx; Muscular - intrinsic muscles of the larynx; Innervation CN X
Where does the lens and nasal placodes form? The frontonasal process
What is associated with the frontonasal process? Intermaxillary segment which forms the primary palate, the philtrum of the lip and the 4 incisor teeth
What forms the secondary palate? The maxillary processes
Where does the thymus? The thyroid diverticulum, then it moves caudal.
What forms the C-cells? Ultimobrachial body
What is the vitelline duct? It is the yolk stalk for the yolk sac
What does the dorsal mesentary in the region of the stomach? Dorsal mesogastrium
What is the adult reminant of the Umbilical vein? Round ligament of the liver
What is th urachus? 4 Part of the allantois extending from the urinary bladder to the umbilicus
What layer does the reproductive organs come from? Intermediate mesoderm - gonadal ridge
What forms the gametes? Primordial germ cells
What is the beginning of the sexual dimorphism? Male - Wolffian duct; Female - Mullerian duct
What forms the efferent ductules and the rete testis? Mesonephric tubules
What forms the testis cord? Gonadal cords.
What forms the seminiferous tubules? The medullary region of the gonadal cord
What do spermatogonia and oogonia cells come from? Primordial germ cells
Where do the Sertoli cells come from? Mesonephric tubules epithelial cells
Where do the intersitial cells come from? Mesodermal mesenchyme cells @ the gonadal ridge
What happens when ovaries form? Gonadal cords degenerate; and cortical cords form
What is special about the mare ovary? Follicles are located throughout the ovary - instead of just around the perphery.
What does the Paramesonephic duct form? uterine tube horns, body & cervix of the uterus and the proximal vagina
Define Uterus masculinus It is a remnant of the paramesonephric ducts in the male. It looks like a very small uterus with horns and a body (especially seen in Stallions)
What are the 4 major criteria for gender determination? 1 - Genetic (chromosomal) composition, 2- Gonadal histology, 3 - Morphology of the reproductive tract, 4 - Morphology/appearance of the external genitalia
Define hermaphrodite. An animal in which one or more of the 4 sex criteria don't match the others.
Define true hermaphrodite. Has gonadal tissues of both sexes
Define false or pseudohermaphrodite Has gonads of one sex only and alteration of one or more other sexual characteristics.
Define teratogen. 4 Something that comprimises the normal development of the fetus or embryo.
Define teratology. Study of the advers effects of the environment on developing system
Define congenital. present at birth.
Describe the effect of Thalidomide. babies with flippers.
What are the 4 lessons of embryology? 1 - This is a self cleansing system. 2 - Not all congenital defects are malformations, 3 - congenital defects are often multifactorial in etiology, 4- An educated guess is better than no guess at all :)
Describe the post conception embryonic loss numbers at 2 weeks. 31% lost within two weeks. (Chromosome and implantation defects)
Describe the post conception embryonic loss numbers at 3 weeks. 27% lost - Infection in dam or endocrinology issues.
Describe the post conception embryonic loss at 8 weeks. 10% loss - Severe malformations
Describe the loss potential of liveborn animals. 7% loss - functional defects
Odds of a liveborn animal with a congential defect. Out of 24 normal births 1 will have a congenital malformation.
Define malformation. An intrinsic problem in embryologic differentiation or development of a structure causing it to be abnormally formed.
Define deformation. An alteration in the shape/structural integrity of a limb or an organ which had previously differentiated and developed normally.
Define a disruption. A structural defect resulting from the distruction of a previously formed normal structure.
What happens to a pre-implanted embryo when it is damaged? Usually death.
What happens to an embryo if it is damaged during organogenesis? Organ and system susceptible to malformations
What happens to a fetus is damaged? Growth retardation, structual defects or functional loss.
Pricipals of teratology 1 - susceptibility depends on genetics. 2 - stage influences susceptibility. 3 - Teratogenics act through specific mechanisms. 4 - Endpoints are different 5 - outcomes depends on the compound. 6 - Dose dependant.
What are the endpoints of abnormal development? Death, malformation, deformation, disruption, growth retardation, functional disorder
Define Amelia All of a limb missing.
Define meromelia Part of a limb is missing
Define polydactyly Presence of extra digits
Define Syndactyly Fusion of digits
Define arthtogryposis limb deformity/ by twisting or bending.
Define manidibular brachygnathia Reduced length of the mandible
Define maxillary brachygnathia Maxillary region is shorter than the mandible
What are other terms for the cerebral aqueduct? Mesencephalic aqueduct or the aqueduct of Sylvius
What are the 3 layers of the neural tube? Ventricular (makes ependymal cells), Mantle (Gray matter), Marginal layer (white matter)
What is the name of the canal in the spinal cord? Central canal
What creates the sensory horn? Alar plate
What creates the motor horn? Basal plate
Define Hydrocephalus. Accumulation of an excessive amount of CSF
Define Obstructive hydrocephalus Excessive CSF that causes increased pressure.
Define Compensatory hydrocephalus When brain tissue fails to form or if brain tissue is destroyed and CSF fills the space = no increased pressure
Define hypoplasia/atrophy viruses that infect the cerebellum and destroys them (in cats - Feline panleukopenia virus; in cows - bovine virus diarrhea virus)
What does the eye develop from? The optic vesicle & optic stalk from the diencephalon
Explain eye development. Optic vesicle forms, a thickening called the lens placode, then the vesicle becomes the optic cup, The lens pit then forms then the lens vesicle
What layer is the lens vesicle made from? Surface ectoderm
What makes up the cornea? Ectoderm, neural crest cells, sometimes mesenchyme
What forms the optic nerve? The optic stalk
Define anophtalmia No eye formed
Define Microphthalmia small eyes formed
Define Congenital cataracts lens becomes opaque during fetal life
Define Collie eye syndrome Coloboma; keyhole pupil
What forms the inner ear? The otic placode
What forms the auditory tube and tympanic cavity? The first pharyngeal pouch
Where is the respiratory diverticulum formed? (also called tracheobronchial) It forms from a ventral groove called the laryngotracheal groove - in ruminants a 3rd bud forms the tracheal bronchus
What is formed by a lung bud? 2 Primary bonchial buds and tracheal bronchus in rumies - a secondary bronchials for the lobar bronchi - then the segmental bronchi
What gives rise to respiratory epithelium? Endoderm
What makes all the lung tissue - except epithelium? Mesenchyme from mesoderm of splanchnopleure
What is Esophageal atresia? the proximal end of the esophagus is a blind pouch.
What is esophagotracheal fistula? The distal end of the esophagus leads into the trachea.
Created by: cproth