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Vet 126 Midterm 2

CBC evaluation of whole blood consisting of its cellular and noncellular components
PCV determines the percentage of RBC to the total volume of blood
RBC synthesize hemoglobin, transport O2 from lungs to tissues, transport waste from cells to lungs
WBC protect the body from foreign microbes and toxins
platelet function hemostasis
major mechanisms for hemostasis vascular spasm, platelet plug, coagulation
plasma noncellular portion of unclotted blood
albumin most common protein, produced in liver, preserves osmotic pressure between blood and tissues
globulin transport lipids and hormones, helps trap and destroy invaders
fibrinogen essential clotting protein
serum noncellular portion of clotted blood
hypoproteinemia decrease of total protein
azotemia presence of abnormally high levels of urea or other nitrogen-containing compounds in the blood
normal color of plasma colorless to straw
abnormal colors of plasma red, white, yellow
reasons for protein losses excessive bleeding from intestinal or urinary tract, malnutrition/starvation, liver disease, parasitism
pre-renal azotemia elevation of nitrogen waste in the blood that is going to kidney but kidney function is OK
primary renal azotemia elevation of nitrogen waste in the blood due to poor kidney disease
post-renal azotemia elevation of nitrogen waste in the blood due to an obstruction preventing the elimination of nitrogenous waste but kidney function is OK
electrolytes calcium, phosphorous, sodium, potassium, chloride
urine specific gravity reflects the kidney's ability to conserve water, evaluation of the urine concentrating ability of the kidney, density of urine compared to density of water
parts of blood separated in microhematocrit tube RBC, buffy coat, plasma
important structures evaluated in a chest radiograph lungs, heart, diaphragm, airway patency
Class I patient physical status normal healthy animals, no underlying disease
Class II patient physical status animals with slight to mild systemic disturbances, animals able to compensate, no clinical signs of disease
Class III patient physical status animals with moderate systemic disease or disturbances, mild clinical signs
Class IV patient physical status animals with preexisting systemic disease or disturbances of a severe nature
Class V patient physical status surgery often performed in desperation on animals with life-threatening systemic disease or disturbances not often correctable by surgery, includes all moribund animals not expected to survive 24 hours
patient preparation for anesthesia correcting pre-existing problems, bathing/grooming, permission forms signed, proper patient ID, proper procedure verification, fasting prior to anesthesia, general parameters, urination/defecation, pre-medications, IV catheterization, fluid therapy
correcting pre-existing problems infections, metabolic system disturbances, parasites, nutrition, etc.
importance and uses of IV catheterization ease of administration, multiple drug doses, rapid administration, emergency port, fluid therapy, constant infusions, partial dose and dose to effect
evaluation of hydration status PCV, skin turgor, TPP, position of eye in orbit, mucous membrane moistness, CRT, urine specific gravity
crystalloids substance which in solution passes readily through animal membranes, diffuses from the intravascular space, 3:1 ratio, most common, maintenance for surgical/anesthetic procedures
colloids resist diffusion, provide oncotic pressure, confined to intravascular space, 1:1 ratio
administration rates for daily maintenance 30-40 mL/lb/day
administration rates for anesthetic maintenance 5-10 mL/lb/hr in small animal, 3-5 mL/lb/hr in large animal
administration delivery set sizes 10, 15, 60 gtts/mL
cellular receptor a molecular structure or site on the surface or inside a cell that binds with a substance; receptor activation usually results in a function or effect
agonist a substance that can combine with a cell receptor to produce a reaction typical for that substance; mimics job of receptor
antagonist a substance that can combine with a cell receptor to block the effect of an agonist; no activity at receptor
partial agonist/antagonist a substance that can combine with a cell receptor, is able to block a pure agonist but has some effects of the agonist to a lesser degree
rationale for pre-medications enhance patient comfort, reduce untoward effects of general anesthesia, decrease amount of anesthetic used, management of non-anesthetic patients
schedule of controlled drugs I is more prone to abuse than V
most commonly used schedule of controlled drugs in veterinary medicine schedules III and IV
phenothiazines commonly used agents for sedation, can be used in combination with other agents, variety of routes of administration
Acepromazine neurolept agent, affects the RAC of the brain, antiemetic, antiarrhythmic, antihistamine, reduces threshold to seizure, peripheral vasodilation, splenic congestion, decreased platelet function, excitation, protrusion of nictitans, relaxes urinary bladder
RAC conscious activity, body temperature, BMR, emesis, vasomotor tone, alertness
benzodiazepines release endogenous GABA, antianxiety, calming, skeletal muscle relaxation/ataxia, anticonvulsant, amnestic, can cause decrease in inhibitions, metabolized by the liver, excreted by the kidney
Diazepam may absorb to plastic, light sensitive, causes precipitates to form, slow IV injection, appetite stimulant/hepatic failure in cats, ataxia, contradictory response, acute control of seizures
Midazolam water soluble, given IM, excitation, combination esp. with narcotics, minimal cardiopulmonary effects, transient resp. depression, paradoxical effects, no analgesia
Xylazine most commonly used thiazine derivative, IM/IV, young healthy patients, has reversal agent, 20 minute analgesia, many side effects, muscle relaxation, cannot be used with epinephrine, increased blood glucose, vomiting, bloat, depresses thermoregulation
Medetomidine dog only, less affinity for alpha-1 receptors, greater potency, less side effects, IM/IV, combination with ketamine, opioids, atropine, glycopyrrolate, diuretic
Detomidine horses, relieves GI/abdominal/colic pain, fatal drug interaction with sulfa antibiotics
Dexmedetomidine isomer of medetomidine
organs containing opioid receptors brain, spinal cord, GI, urinary, smooth muscle
use of opioids derived from morphine, analgesia, neurolept analgesia, respiratory depression, thermoregulation, GI effects, addiction, bradycardia, hypotension, increased intracranial pressure, cough suppression, increased response to noise, miosis, mydriasis, sweating
neurolept analgesia use of opioid+tranquilizer, used to induce general anesthesia
Oxymorphone 10x more potent than morphine, hyperexcitability in cats
Hydromorphone 5x more potent than morphine, relatively safe for all species
Fentanyl 250x more potent than morphine, limit to where transdermal patch can be placed
Meperidine 1/8th potency of morphine, severe hypotension if given too quickly, irritating if given SQ, horses experience tachycardia/profuse sweating/PVC
Buprenorphone 30x more potent than morphine, may not see full effect in some species
Butorphanol 4-7x more potent than morphine, tolerance build up with sequential use
parasympatholytic medication block acetylcholine receptors, block parasympathetic effects, caution with patients with heart muscle disease, increased heart rate, bronchodilation, decraesed secretions
pain scale 1 is less painful than 9
preemptive analgesia delivery of an analgesic prior to the painful procedure, decreases the buildup of chemical mediators of pain
steroids block the action of phospholipase, stabilize cell membranes and make them less fragile, decrease inflammatory pathway, cannot use chronically
NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, aspirin-like, block formation of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins, block cyclooxygenase activity, target cyclooxygenase II
neutraceuticals essential fatty acids, plant/animal sources, increase caloric intake
antihistamines competitive antagonist to histamine at tissue receptors, do not prevent histamine release
balanced anesthesia use of multiple anesthetic agents to achieve response
Created by: hbrandt



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