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Equine basics

Description of a foal. Baby horse of either sex
Description of a suckling. A foal still nursing
Description of a weanling. A foal no longer nursing
Description of a yearling. Year old horse of either sex
Description of a filly. A female horse from birth to 3 years of age
Description of a mare: Female horse 4 years of age and up
Description of a broodmare: A mare used for breeding
Description of a colt: Intact male horse nursing to 4 years of age
Description of a stallion: Intact male horse 4 years of age and up
Description of a gelding: Gelded/castrated male horse any age.
One hand is equal to: 4 inches
Where do you measure the hands on a horse: Measured from the top of the withers to the ground
Minature size is considered: Less then 8.2 hands or no larger then 34"
Pony size is considered: 10 - 14.2 hands
Light horse size is considered: 14.2-17.2 hands
Draft horse size is considered: 17-19.2 hands
Cold blooded horses are considered what breed? Draft breeds
What are four ways to identify a horse? Markings, tatoo, branding, microchip
Markings - between eyes is called a? Star
Markings - down face is called a? Stripe
Markings - large strip is called a? Blaze
Markings - muzzle is called a? Muzzle
Markings - on nose or muzzle is called a? Snip
Markings - entire face is called a? Bald
Markings - lip is called a? Lip
Tatooing on a horse is formated how? First character is the letter for the year and # follows depending on race track
What do they use to do freeze branding? Nitrous oxide
What is the normal stall size for a horse? 12X12
What is the normal stall size for a foaling stall? 12X24
Horse's are what kind of fermenters? Hindgut
Where does the digestion take place in horses? Hindgut fermenters occurs in cecum and large intestine.
Horses get protien from what? Hay
What are the different kinds of hay? Legume hay (alfalfa), Grass hay (timothy)
Alfalfa (Legume hay) has the most what? fat, protiens, carbs
Does timothy hay have more/less protien then alfalfa? Less protien
When do you start giving a pregnant horse a higher protien diet? Last 1/4 of their pregnancy
What is the maintenance feeding amount of horses per day? 15 lbs per day/two feedings
When should the foal receive the colostrum by? Within two hours of birth
When do you start weaning? 4-6 months of age
When does the foal start eating hay? 2 months of age
Never feed a horse what? Because it its high in? and can cause? wheat bran, phosphorus, limb defects
Calcium phosporus levels need to be? Even
What is the gestation length of a horse? 340 days or 11 months and 10 days
Signs of estrus? Raises tail, squat, urinate, winking
The first way to check for a pregnancy? Ultrasound & rectal palpation
Day 15 of the pregnancy what do you do? Visualise embryonic vessel
Day 30 of the pregnancy what do you do? Check heartbeat; check for twins - pinch off twin if there
Day 40-60 of the pregnancy what do you do? Check normal development
The rectal palpation is done again in the fall to what? To make sure the mare is still pregnant and hasn't slip'd the foal
Caslick procedure is? When they suture 2/3 vulva make sure the mare doesn't have the baby to soo. This is due to mares with short vagina or risk for early delivery.
When do the mammary glands start developing? 3-6 weeks prior to foaling
When do the mammary glands start filling with colostrum? 2-3 days prior to foaling
What are the stages of delivery? Stage one - restless/sweatyStage two - deliveryStage three - delivery of placenta
When does stage one of delivery end? Rupture of the sack
Placenta must be delivered whole within? 3 hours
Foal should stand within? 1 hour
The mare and foal should be checked within? 24 hours of delivery
Complications of pregnancy - what is red bag? When the placenta comes out and there is no baby. Placenta becomes detached from baby.
What is red bag caused from? Endophyte fungus found in fields or spontaneously
What is dystocia? Difficult birth - baby must be delivered within three hours.
Name three different kinds of horse exams? Lameness exam, breeding exam, prepurchase exam, colic exam, basic physical exam
You should always have what when you travel? Health certificate
What is the normal blood pressure of a horse? 20-40 bpm
What is the normal temperature of a horse? 99-101.5
What is the average respiratory for a horse? 5
blue/purple gums mean cyanosis
red gums mean septicemal/septic shock
yellow gums icterus
white not good
A distinct purple line on gumline along the margins of teeth indicate endotoxemia or toxin in the body toxic line
What does the 3-way vaccine have in it? eastern/western tetnus, encephalomyletis
What does the 4-way vaccine have in it? eastern/western tetnus, equine influenza, tetnus toxoid
Rhine vaccine is for rhinopheumoitis or equine herpe virus 1 & 4
Flu vaccine is for includes the most common strands of equine influenza
Flu/Rhino Vaccine Includes influenza and rhino vaccine
Rabies vaccine given 2 ml annually
Broodmare vaccines should be given 4-6 weeks prior to breeding & during gestation at 3, 5, 7, 9. Also another vaccine 4-6 weeks prior to delivery.
When is the broodmare wormed? 24-48 hours prior to delivery
When do you vaccinate a foal? Not until they are 3-4 months old. They are good with antibodies from mom well through 2 months.
Most horses that test positive for coggins are? Euthanized
In the horse you give injects iv where? Jugular
In the horse you give IM injects where? Gluteals or semimembraneous
In the horse you give SQ injections where? Axilla - normally you don't give SQ though
What do you always do when giving an injection? Aspirate
What is the dental formula for a baby horse? 2(di3/3, dc0/0, dp3/3) = 24 total
What is the dental formula for an adult horse? 2(I3/3, C1/1, P3-4/2, M3/3) = 40-42 total
What is the order of putting on a leg wrap? Put on the tefla pad first if covering the wound, Kling wrap, sheet cotton, large brown gauze, Vet wrap usually two rolls, Elasticon or duct tape on ends
What are cups on a horses tooth? black cavity in the middle of the occlusal surfaces on the incisors disappear at different ages
What is the order of putting on a leg wrap? Put on the tefla pad first if covering the wound, Kling wrap, sheet cotton, large brown gauze, Vet wrap usually two rolls, Elasticon or duct tape on ends
Deciduous teeth are also known as? Caps
This disease we vaccinate against is also known as sleeping sickness caused by mosquito bites Equine eastern enchalamylitis, Equine western encephalamylitis
This bacterial diseas we vaccinate for causes ridged saw horse like stance, with muscle paralysis? Teatnus clostridium tetani
EPM is what? Equine protozoal myelitis
What causes equine protozoal myelitis? protozoal parasite, sarcocystis neurona
EPM Parasite causes inflammation and necrosis of the brain, brainstem and spinal cord
THis disease causes shaker foal syndrome? Botulism
Botulism is caused by the ingestion of ? neurotoxin made by clostridium botulinum
This disease causes swever swelling of the lymph nodes and ishighly contagious? Strangles bacteria, streptococcus equi
Strangles is transmitted by flies and by vet or tech who doesn't practic good hygeine. Highly contagious.
WHy do you bandage all the legs when only one needs wrapped? To help keep the legs equal pressure so animal doesn't favor a leg.
Created by: wndym



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