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histo II

Exam II Goff Digestion

What type of epithelium is in the rumen? Stratified
Movement of sodium into the lumen drives absorption of what 3 things? glucose, amino acids, minerals
What does crypt cells secrete actively? passively? Actively - Cl Passively - Na & water
Absorption of Chloride is by what process? Apical = down concentration gradient
Chloride basolateral absorption is different in different parts of the intestine how? Upper intestine - passive absoprtion (Cl- follows Na) Ileum/Colon - active trasnport of Cl in exchange for HCO1 and Na ion
Potassium absorption is in what cells? villus cells primarily of the ileum
How does K be absorbed? paracellulary across tight junctions specific K-ATPase also pump K across brush border in casses of low diet K
What pumps Ca into intercellular space Ca ATPase pump
this type of protien is very high in quality and formed from ammonia and carbon skeletons by the rumen rumen degradable protein
protein that escapes microbial destruction is known as RUP - rumen undegradable protein
RUP + bacterial protein = ? Metabolizable protein
Healthy rumen pH is what? ~ 6 - 6.5
Qhat are some sources of N for a ruminant? NPN feeds (urea) de-amination of degradable proteins urea recycling through rumen wall and salivary secretion
3 reasons to feed fat? 1 - increased palatability for carnivores and omnivores 2 - efficiently forms adipose 3 - needed for chylomicron for fat soluble vitamin absorption
What cells absorb Na, Cl and water? villus cells
What is the primary method of absorption of B-vitamins? transcellularly
What artery supplies the stomach and spleen? celiac artery
What does the cranial mesenteric a. supply? S.I., pancreas, proximal colon
what does the posterior mesenteric a. supply? majority of colon
What is the venous drainage system? portal vein, liver sinusoids, hepatic vein, vena cava
What increases gut blood flow (4) - vasodilator hormones ( gastrin, secretin CCK) - vasodilator kinins (shunting through capillaries) - low oxygen = high adenosine - prostaglandins E& I
What effect does parasympathetic NS control have on the gut blood flow? increased gut activity, increased blood flow
What effect does sympathetic NS control have on gut blood flow? decreases blood flow directly (exercise and shock)
What is the conclusion from the capon study? something in the testicle is necessary for male characteristic stimulation
What is a hormone? signaling molecule in blood stream, neural axons or local diffusion
what type of molecule is a hormone? protein, peptide, catecholamine, steroid, or iodinated tyrosine derivative
What does a hormone do at the target tissue? modulate metabolic pathway, regulate without itself contributing energy or initiating the process
what is the function of the endocrine system? work with the nervous system to maintain homeostasis. (regulate metabolism, fluid status, growth, sexual development and reproduction)
What endocrine route binds to a receptor on a cell from which they were secreted? autocrine
What endocrine route binds to a receptor on a cell near the cell they were secreted from? paracrine
What endocrine route enters the blood stream and binds to a receptor far from the cell it was secreted from? endocrine
What route is secreted from a neuron? neurocrine
What are the categories of hormones? peptide and protein, catecholamine, thyroid, steroid
peptide and protein hormones are secreted where? golgi apparatus by exocytosis
Peptide and protein hormones are stored where? secretory granules of golgi
How are protein and peptide hormones synthesized? DNA--> mRNA--> preprohormone --> prohormone --> hormone
What is an example of peptides? vasopresin, oxytocin, glucagon
what are some protein hormones? insulin, growth hormone, prolactin
What are some examples of catecholamine hormones? epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine
How is catecholamine hormones synthesized? tyrosine
Where is catecholamine hormones stored? secretory granules
How are catecholamine hormones released exocytosis
What are some examples of thyroid hormones? thyroxine, triiodothyronine
What are thyroid hormones syntehsized from? tyrosine and iodide
where are thyroid hormones stored? extracellularly in follicles of the thyroid gland
How are thyroid hormones secreted? requires enzymatic release
What are some examples of steroid hormones? cortisol, aldosterone, androgens, vitamin D
steroid hormones are synthesized from what? cholesterol
What is the dominant mechanism of regulating hormone secretion and release? negative feedback
What are the two stages of the negative feedback loop? stimulation and suppression
What are the 3 causes of diarrhea? Malabsorption, hypersecretion, osmotic
Water is not lost from body water stores in same proportions. Plasma % is lost ________ than ECF loss greater
ECF loss of water is _______ than intracellular water loss greater
what is another word for circulation collapse? shock
does shock occur before/after intracellular water is changed/effected? BEFORE
What diarrhea cause is due to digestive enzymatic insufficiency? maldigestive
In this cause of diarrhea ingest remains in the lumen and due to osmotic pull the water content in the stool is increased maldigestive
Where is maldigestive diarrhea most likely to occur? small intestine
A loss of villous cells is seen with what cause of diarrhea? malabsorptive
With this cause of diarrhea you see bacterial/viral damage causing leaky membranes, defeating pump and graidents malabsorptive
What two species are you most likely to see rotavirus in? calf, piglet
in this virus the tip of the villous is destroyed rotavirus
rotavirus and TGE are causative agents of what form of diarrhea? malabsorptive
with this disease/virus the animal can not digest or absorb disaccharides or small peptides and water is leaving = dilute hyperosmotic chyme rotavirus - malabsorptive
what does TGE stand for? what species does it involve? what cause of diarrhea is it? transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus of pigs - malabsorptive
with TGE what structure is affected and how? all of the villus cells are destroyed
panleukopenia and parvo virus are affiliated with what diarrhea cause? malabsortive
what method do parvoviruses take on the small intestine? wipe out crypt cel, hemmorrhage
What diarrhea cause is cryptosporidiosis linked with? malabsorptive
this diarrhea causative agent is a single cell eukaryotic parasite that works by attacking ileal and proximal colon cells cryptosporidiosis
How do bacterial infections lead to diarrhea? grow into/thru mucosa - loss of tight cell junctions or exposed intestinal space
On necropsy you see fibrosis and scarring of mucosa from immune response that obliterates most absorptive function over time. This is a cow that was severly emaciated and dehydrated - what disease? Johnes/paratuberculosis
during malabsorption what is the colon's role? compensation - colon still absorbs Na and water
What do the bacteria in the colon do? break down sugars to VFA, absorb VFA (depends on age of animal)
dark, tarry looking blood melena
is melena digested/undigested blood? digested
where does melena originate from? upper small intestine
bright red blood is known as what? frank blood
where does frank blood originate? lower colon
this cause of diarrhea has excessive chloide secreting activity on the crypt cells and reduced activity of villus cells secretory diarrhea
What two molecules follow chloide into the lumen? water and Na
what triggers the opening of chloride channels on apical surfaces letting chloride into the lumen? Ca++ released from intracellular stores into the cytosol
What normally modulates secretion on as-needed basis based on osmolarity and stetch receptors? parasympathetics
what is the effect of prsotaglandins E2 and I2? where are they produced? produced within submucosa and mucosa, bind to receptors on crypt cells and acdivate adenyl cyclase --> increased cAMP in cells
the inflammatory response plays a role in what cause of diarrhea? secretory - mucous secretion by goblet cells - mucousy diarrhea
do toxins damage the enterocyte? no
toxins play a role in what cause of diarrhea? secretory
Enterotxigenic Eschericia coli and Vibrio cholerae are causative agents for what type of diarrhea? secretory
voluminous green water like diarrhea is what type? secretory
Secretory diarrhea blocks the absorption of what? Na/Cl and water
what is the goal of oral rehydration therapy? provide electrolytes to restore circulation and treat acidosis
What type of diarrhea are the lumen contents not absorbed adequately or are non-abosrbable Osmotic diarrhea
What type of diarrhea draws water into the gut and keeps it there in an attempt to motain proper osmoality? Osmotic diarrhea
What is the goal for osmolarity of upper GI and colon 300 mOs
milk of magnesia, epsom salts and prune juice have what affect on absorption? poorly absorbed
What happens if you feed neonates large meals 1-2 times a day instead of the small meals throughout the day (8-10x)their gut prefers? volume overwhelms digestive enzymes
The overwhelming of lactase to digest lactose is a common precursor to what type of diarrhea? osmotic
Is osmotic diarrhea by itself harmful to the animal? No, animal just needs extra water intake - loosing nutrients, not most effective
Cow manure with lots of bubbles is often a sign of what? incomplete fermentation of starches, rumen acidosis
If a cow has hind gut fermentation happening due to too many starches making it through the rumen what would you likely see? bubbly manure
Presence of what in the diet will reduce feed intake especially in neonates and poultry? oligosaccharides
What effect do oligosaccharides have on feeding? reduced intake
What feed ingredient has a high percentage of oligosaccharides? soybean meal
What is the significance of the bird having a short digestive tract? Lighter for flying
What structure in the bird is for storing food and seen as a dilation of the esophagus? crop
What structure of the bird is responsible for moistening the food and beginning fermentation? crop
The glandular stomach of the bird is what? proventriculus
What bird structure secretes HCL and digestive enzymes proventriculus
what is another name for the ventriculus gizzard
What structure of the bird is the muscular section specialized for grinding? ventriculus = gizzard
What structure in the bird has a hard keratin lining? what is its purpose? ventriculus = gizzard, for grinding and protection from acid
What purpose does the bird have for having two ceca? hindgut fermentation in some species - not as efficient as horse/rabbit Renal ureters empty here
What is special about bird poop? uric acid is mixed with feces
Is the rate of passage slow or fast in a chicken? FAST 2.5hrs 4-6hrs
What structure is responsible for the control of feed intake? (brain structure) hypothalamus - satiety center
A lesion of the lateral hypothalamus would destroy what brain center? feeding center
what enzyme stimulates the appetite neuropeptide Y
What stimulates neuropeptide Y? (2) glucocorticoids and androgens
WHat inhibits neuropeptide Y (3) insulin, estrogens, LEPTIN
Why is how much the animal is willing to eat important? limit to productivity is how much animal will eat (think milking dairy cow, or growing feeder animal)
How does glucose metabolism affect food intake? Blood glucose drops = hungry
What affect does insulin have on feeling satieted? Quick Insulin increase= decreased blood glucose = hungry
How do protein and fat affect insulin? not quick glucose surge = not quick insulin surge - feel full longer
What causes CCK release into the blood? high fat/amino acid meal
What releases CCK where? enteroendocrine cells in duodenum
What affect does CCK have on satiety? in hypothalamus signals satiety
What secretes Ghrelin? enteroendocrine cells in stomach
When is Ghrelin secreted? when stomach is empty
What is another location where Ghrelin is made? pancreas
What affect does Ghrelin have on appetitie? stimulates appetite when reaches hypothalamus
Where is peptide YY made? ileum, colon
What affect foes peptide YY have? signals satiety in hypothalamus
What stimulates production of peptide YY? ingesta reaching ileum/colon
What produces leptin? what affect does this have on hunger? adipose produces leptin, signals satiety
If you are like a mouse and genetically deficient in leptin what happens? Morbidly obese
What affect do high zinc diets have on copper? inadequate copper
What dictates iron absorption? body needs
For adults where should your concern be concerning iron? toxicity, diets generally supply adequate iron for adults
What is maintenance of plasma Mg concentration dependent on? daily dietary Mg absorption
Where is Mg absorbed? SI in young rumenants, rumen, reticulum of adults
What affect can penicillin type of antibiotics have on bacteria? Kill off gram positives
What is the harm of not having gram positive bacteria in the gut? allow E.coli overgrowth
What is the oxygen level in the upper small intestine? high
What is the effect of high levels of oxygen? does not allow the growth of strict anaerobes
What type of bacteria live in the small intestine? faculatative anaerobes
Can Clostridia live in the upper small intestine? Not normally - strict anaerobe
What is the oxygen level of the lower intestine and colon? lower
What type of bacteria live in the lower intestine and colon? some anaerobes
What specific feed benefit do ruminants/hind-gut fermented get? able to obtain energy from beta-linked polysacharides
Can horses and cows live strictly on forgaes? YES
What is special about ruminants diet? What can they utilize others can not? Can convert diet N into high quality protein
Which of the following is not a benefit to a cow: bacteria, protozoa, yeast, fungi Protozoa
What does cellulolytic bacteria do? break down beta linkages of cellulose and hemicellulose
What are some examples of cellylolytic bacteria? bacteroides, ruminococcus, butyrovibrio
What is ruminococcus and bacteroides? cellylolytic bacteria
What do amylolytic bacteria do? break down starches to sugars
What type of bacteria are amylolytic? Gram positive
What type of bacteria are cellylolytic? strict anaerobes
Streptococcus and Ruminobacter are examples of what? Amylolytic bacteria
What is the end product of amylolytic bacteria and what can this cause? lactate --> rumen acidosis
What do lactate utilizers do? adapt rumen for large amounts of high energy fed = starch
How do lactate utilizers work? destroy lactate as it is formed
What are the bacteria called that destroy lactate as it is formed in an attempt to adapt the rumen for consumption of lots of high energy feeds such as starch? lactate utilizers
What are two examples of lactate utilizers? selenomonas, megasphaera
What are selenomonas and megasphaera examples of? Lactate utilizers
What happens to the most digestible carbohydrates that reach the rumen/colon? fermented into VFAs
What is produced in higher quantities by ruminants when on high energy diets? VFAs!
Proportionally what specific VFA increases with high energy diet? proprionate
Why is proprionate an important VFA? gluconeogenic precursor
What are the three smallest VFAs? Acetate (1 bond), propionate (2), butyrate (3)
Horse vs. Cow: Who gets more energy from high grain diets n why? Horse, absorbs simple sugars in SI Cow would miss out on the simple sugars because the bacteria get it
Horse vs. Cow: Who gets more energy from an all forage diet? Cow - rumen has slower transit then colon = more absorption
Horse vs. Cow: Who gets the advantage of high quality protiens from the diet? Horse - absorbed in SI - Cow - bacteria get first
Horse vs. Cow: Who gets more protein from an all forage diet? COW - horse colon doesn't absorb a.a.
What is the process allowing hindgut fermenters to take advantage of microbial protein and vitamins produced in the colon? coprophagy
Where does a cow get the majority of its protein? Microbial (40-60%)
What are the types of protein a cow has available to it? Microbial (40-60%), RUP (30-40%), Endogenous (5-10%)
Can you feed a browser(deer) like a regular ruminant (Cow)? No would develop rumen acidosis or starve
What is different about the browsers and cows in their rumen digesta? Browsers don't have layering in the rumen
Compare the rate of passage of browsers/ruminants Browsers have faster rate of passage through rumen
Do browsers need to eat more/less then traditional ruminants? MORE, get less energy derived from structural CHO due to faster rate of passage
What type of stomach do camelids have? pseudoruminat = 3 chambers with unique saccules in C1 and C2
Where does a camelid's spit come from? regurgitated from C1 EWWWW
Are camelids more/less prone to bloat then traditional ruminants (cow) - why? Less - eructate more often then cows
Where does the "true" stomach of the camelid -What portion is glandular? C3 compartment
How does camelid fermentation differ from cow? No layering of ingesta = continuous fermentation process
What determines the digestion rate of a reptile? Body temperature
If a reptile is VERY cold can it eat?digest? Yes, can eat, has to warm up to digest (need enzymes!)
What type of stomach does a crocodile have and why do we care? Why is it pertinant to this course? two sections
What is special about the first section of a crocodile stomach? Muscular contains gastroliths to grind similar to bird gizzard
What does the 2nd section of a crocodile stomach do? produce acid
What is SUPER special about the crocodile (2nd section of stomach) Produces strongest acid of species - digests bones, hides, and more oh my!
Whats the key to remembering monkey/ape stomachs? diet dictates shape
Concerning monkeys - those that eat leads must have what? enlarged colon to use structural CHOs compartamentalized stomach = microbial fermentation + acid stomach
What is important to remember about Zoo carnivores feedings? Need calcium, vitamins etc from liver ingesta and bone of other animals IN ADDITION to raw meat
Created by: 33805024



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