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Developmental Anatomy test 1

The transformation of a zygote into an individual is __________ development. ontogenic
The evolution of simple to complex organisms is called __________ development. phylogenetic
What is the term for the developmental stage between fertilization and completion of organogenesis? embryo
What is the term for the developmental stage between completion of organogenesis and birth? fetus
What is the length of gestation and number of days as a fetus for dogs? 57-63 days/35 days
What is the length of gestation and number of days as a fetus for cats? 60-63 days/29 days
What is the length of gestation and number of days as a fetus for horses? 335 days/55 days
What is the length of gestation and number of days as a fetus for pigs? 116 days/36 days
What is the length of gestation and number of days as a fetus for cattle? 290 days/52 days
What is the length of gestation and number of days as a fetus for sheep? 155 days/40 days
What is the term for the general process of differentiation and maturation of primordial germ cells? gametogenesis
Where do primordial germ cells come from in the embryo? wall of yolk sack
What is the maturation of primordial germ cells into female gametes? oogenesis
What is the maturation of primordial germ cells into male gametes? spermatogenesis
What are immature female germ cells in the ovary that undergo mitosis? oogonia
What are immature male germ cells in the testes that undergo mitosis? spermatogonia
What do oogonia differentiate into and when? primary oocytes, in the embryo/fetus until birth
What process to primary oocytes undergo to become secondary oocytes? meiosis 1
What is the name for the female germ cells that area product of meiosis 1? secondary oocyte
What germ cells are females born with? primary oocytes (arrested in meiosis 1)
What germ cells are formed near ovulation? secondary oocytes
What stimulates the completion of meiosis 1 in primary oocytes? ovulatory hormones
When does meiosis 2 of oocytes occur? after fertilization
When are mature oocytes created? after fertilization
In the dog and fox, what type of oocyte is released at ovulation? primary oocyte
When do spermatogonia begin to differentiate into primary spermatocytes? at puberty
When does meiosis 1 occur in the male germ cells? at any time after puberty
When does meiosis 2 occur in the male germ cells? at any time after puberty
When secondary spermatocytes undergo meiosis 2, what are the end products called? spermatids
What 2 processes must happen for spermatids to become fertile spermatozoa? Spermiogenesis and capacitation
What is the process of transforming a spermatid into a spermatozoan? spermiogenesis
What step in the spermatozoan maturation process occurs in the female reproductive tract? capacitation
What is the name for the result of the fusion of gametes and where does this usually occur? zygote; ampula of oviduct
What must the spermatozoan do before it can fuse with the oocyte? penetrate the zona pellucida
What are the cells inside the morula and blastocyst called? Blastomeres
Why does the size of a morula not change even though blastomeres are constantly dividing? zona pellucida still surrounds them
What may happen to the blastocyst (blastula) once the zona pelucida has ruptured? Implantation
What is the collection of blastomeres at one pole of the blastocyst? Inner cell mass
What are the blastomeres that line the blastocyst cavity? trophoblasts
What will trophoblasts eventually become? Chorion
What will the inner cell mass eventually become? Embryo and fetal membranes (embryonic disk)
What is the term for germ layer formation? gastrulation
Where do hypoblast cells come from and where are they located? inner cell mass; they line the trophoblast cells in the blastocyst cavity
What do hypoblast cells become? yolk sac
What do the inner cell mass cells that do not become hypoblast cells become? Epiblast
What does the epiblast split into? extraembryonic epiblast and embryonic epiblast
What does the extraembryonic epiblast become? lines the amniotic cavity
What does the embryonic epiblast become? source of all 3 germ layers
What do the cells on the midline of the epiblast become? Primitive streak
What is the fate of the epiblast cells that displace the hypoblast cells near the epiblast? Endoderm
What is the fate of epiblast cells that migrate between the endoderm and the epiblast? Mesoderm
What does the main, outer chunk of epiblast become? Ectoderm
What systems/tissues does the ectoderm form? Epidermis and nervous system
What systems/tissues does the mesoderm form? Cardiovascular, urinary, genital, and most connective tissue and muscle
What systems/tissues does the endoderm form? Digestive, respiratory, uriary bladder, tympanic cavity, parenchyma of thyroid and parathyroid glands
Mesoderm directly lateral to notochord peraxial mesoderm
Mesoderm direclty lateral to paraxial mesoderm intermediate mesoderm
Mesoderm direclty lateral to intermediate mesoderm lateral plate mesoderm
Establishment of nervous system in embryo neuralation
What will the notocord become after neural ectoderm has differenciated? Nucleus pulposus
What allows communication between the neural tube and the amnion? neuropores
What will the lumen of the neural tube become? Brain ventricles
What will neural crest cells become (4) medulla, ANS, melanocytes, ct of face
What will intermediate mesoderm differentiate into? urogenital structures
What is the “most outstanding event in early development”? growth
What is it called whe na gorup of cells directs differentiatoin of other cells? induction
In what phase of commitment can cell differentiate autonomously? specification
In what phase of commitment is there irreversible commitment? determination
A mass of cells becoming a structure is called… morphogenesis
What is the subset of cells forming an organ? morphogenic field
What is the study of abnormal development? teratology
Study of abnormal mechanism of development teratogenesis
What is the term for developmental failure (complete lack of development of an organ or tissue) agenesis
Germ for incomplete development hypoplasia
Term for excess in size or number of organs developmental excess
What are the 2 types of chromosome abnormalities? non-disjunction and translocatoin
What is the name for trisomy of sex chromosomes? klinefelter syndrome
What is the name for monosomy of sex chromosomes? Turner’s syndrome
What structure do plant terratogens most commonly affect? appendicular skeleton
Created by: Sknabholz



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