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Terminology 01

Veterinary Terminology

prefix word found at beginning of word
root word part that gives essential meaning
combining vowel single vowel that is added to make root easier to pronounce
combining form combination of root and combining vowel
suffix word part found at the end of a word
A- without or no
An- without or no
Ab- away from
Ad- toward
Dys- difficult
Eu- good
Endo- within
Ecto- outside
Ex- without
Exo- outside
Hyper- elevate
Hypo- depressed
Inter- between
Intra- within
Poly- many
Oligo- scant
Pre- before
Post- after
Sub- below
Super- beyond
Supra- beyond
epi- upper
extra outside
infra- below
meta- beyond
per- throughout
trans- across
ultra- above
pan- all
leuk/o white
-penia deficiency
-tomy cut into
-stomy surgically create opening
-ectomy surgically remove
-ac heart
-al kidney
-an ovary
-ar lower back
-ic intestines
-ine uterus
-ous skin
-tic kidneys
-pexy suture to stablize
-plasty surgical repair
-centesis surgical puncture
-rrhage bursting forth
-rrhaphy suture
rrhea flow
rrhexis rupture
-therapy treatment
-lysis separation
-scope instrument to visually examine
-scopy procedure to visually examine
-gram record of
-graph instrument that records
-graphy procedure that records
-algia pain
-dynia pain
-malacia abnormal softening
-megaly enlargement
-osis abnormal condition
-pathy disease
-sclerosis abnormal hardening
-um structure
Cyan blue
Anem deficient red blood
Muc slimelike substance
Ili part of hip
Condy round projection on bone
Carp joint between radius,ulna,& metacarpal bones
Ventral belly or underside
Dorsal back
Cranial toward head
Caudal toward tail
Anterior front of body
Posterior rear of body
Rostral nose end of head
Cephalic pertaining to the head
Medial toward midline
Lateral away from midline
Superior uppermost
Inferior lowermost
Proximal nearest midline
Distal farthest from midline
Superficial near surface
Deep away from surface
Palmer caudal surface of front paw
Plantar caudal surface of rear paw
Midsagittal plane equal right and left halves
Sagittal plane unequal right and left halves
Dorsal plane divides into back and belly halves
Transverse plane divides body into front and back halves
-logy study of
anatomy study of blood structure
physiology study of body structure
pathology study of causes of abnormal conditions
etiology study of disease
recumbent laying down
Dorsal recumbency laying on back
Ventral recumbency lying on belly
Left lateral recumbency laying on left side
Right lateral recumbency laying on right side
adduction movement toward the midline
abduction movement away from the midline
flexion closure of a joint angle
extension straightening of a joint
hyperflexion joint flexed too far
hyperextension joint extended too far
supination rotating limb to face up
pronation rotating limb to face down
genetic disorder condition caused by defective genes
congenital disorder present at birth
tissue group of cells similar in structure
histology study of tissue structure and function
uni- 1
bi- 2
tri- 3
quadra- 4
qinqu- 5
sex- 6
sept- 7
octo- 8
novem- 9
deca- 10
dia- between
oste- bone
cortical bone hard dense strong bone tagt forms outter layer of bone
cancellous bone light less strong bone found at the ends and inner portions of long bones
physis cartilage segment of long bone that involves growth
metaphysis wider part of long bone shaft located adjacent to the physis
cartilage form of connective tissue more elastic than bone
articular cartilage specific type of cartilage that covers joint surfaces of bone
meniscus curved fibrous cartilage foundin some joints
Joints connections between bones
synarthroses allows no movement
amphiarthroses allows slight movement
diarthroses allows free movement
ligament band of fibrous connective tissue that connects one bone to another bone
tendon fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone
bursa fibrous sac that acts as a cusion to ease movement in areas of friction
axial skeleton framework of body
appendicular skeleton framework of body that cosists of extremities,shoulder and pelvis girdle
cranium portion of skull that encases the brain
frontal front or cranial portion of skull
parietal paired bones that form the roof of the caudal cranial cavity
occipital forms the caudal aspect of cranial cavity where opening of spinal cord is located
foramen opening in bone where tissue passes
magnum large
temporal paired bones that form the sides and base of cranium
sphenoid pairs of bone that form the base of skull and parts of floor and sides of bony eye socket
ethmoid forms rostral part of the cranial cavity
incisive forms rotral part of hard palate and lower edge of nares
vertebr/o combining form of vertebra
vertebrae more than 1 vertebra
ribs paired bones that attach to thoratic vertebrae
cost/o combining fom for rib
costals what ribs are sometimes called
manubrium cranial portion of the sternum
sternum breastbone
sternum body mid portion of sternum
xiphoid process caudal portion of sternum
scapula shoulderblade
clavicle collarbone
humerus long bone of front limb
radius cranial bone of front limb
ulna caudal bone of front limb
phalanges bones of digits
phalanx single bone of the phalanges
ungulates animals with hooves
fetlock joint joint between metacarpal III and the digit
pastern joint joint between p1 and p2
coffin joint joint between p2 and p3
onychectomy removal of cats claws
hip consisits of 3 pairs of bone
ilium largest pair that is blade shaped
ischium caudal pair of bones
acetabulum large socket that forms where 3 bones connect
patella large sesamoid bone in the rear, in humans its the kneecap
ambulation walking,running
my/o combining form for muscle
fibr/o combining form for fibrous tissue
fascia fibrous connective tissue that covers,supports and separates muscles
fasci/o combining form for fascia
tendon narrow band of connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone
tend/o combining form for tendon
abductor muscle that moves a part away from the midline
adductor muscle that moves a part toward the midline
flexor muscle that bends a limb at it joint
extensor muscle that straightens a limb
levator muscle that raises a part
depressor muscle that lowers a part
rotator muscle that turns a body part on its axis
supinator muscle that rotates the palmar and plantar surface upward
pronator muscle that rotates the palmar and plantar surface downward
pectoral muscles located on the chest
epaxial muscles located above the pelvic axis
intercostal muscles located between the ribs
infraspinatus muscles located beneath the spine
rectus straight
oblique slanted
tranverse crosswise
sphincter tight band
barrel chest or trunk of horse
cannon bone 3d metacarpal or shin bone on horse
ergot tuft of hair behind horses foot
frog v-shaped pad of soft horn between bars on sole of horses foot
hock tarsal joint
muzzle animals nose and mouth
pastern area of limb between the fetlock and hoof
brisket mass of connective tissue,muxcle and fat between forelegs on cattle
crest dorsal margin of the neck
hooks protrusion of the wing of the ilium on dorsolateral area of cattle
poll top of head
switch tuft of hair at end of tail
teat nipple of mammary gland
udder mammary gland
horn butt poll region between eyes and ears of previous horn growth
loin lumbar region of the back between thorax and pelvis of goats
pins of the ischium bones just lateralto base of tail in ruminants
wattle appendages suspended from the head under chin
withers region over the dorsum where neck joins the thorax
ham musculature of the upper thigh
jowl external throat
snout upper lip apex of the nose of swine
pinna projecting part of the ear lying outside the head
rump sacral to tailhead region of the back
stud intact male dog
bitch intact female dog
whelp young dog or pup
whelping giving birth to whelps
pack group of dogs
litter multiple offspring born in same birth
tom intact male cat
queen intact female cat
kitten young cat
queening giving birth to kittens
hob intact male ferret
jill intact female ferret
gib neutered male ferret
sprite spayed female ferret
kit young ferret
kindling giving birth to ferrets
buck intact male rabbit
doe intact female rabbit
lapin neutered male rabbit
kit young rabbit
kindling giving birth to rabbits
herd group of rabbits
boar intact male guinea pig
sow intact female guinea pig
pup young guinea pig
sire intact male mouse
dam intact female nouse
pup young mouse
lagomorph rabbit
cavy guinea pig
murine mouse or rat
tom intact male turkey
hen intact female turkey
poult young turkey
flock group of turkeys
clutch group of eggs
rooster sexually mature male chicken
hen intact female chicken
capon young castrated male chicken
cockerel immature male chicken
pullet immature female chicken
poult young chicken
chick very young chicken
flock group of chickens
anserine geese and ducks
ratite large flightless birds
porcine swine
equine horse,donkey,mule
ovine sheep
caprine goat
bovine cattle
cervidae deer,elk,moose,caribou
camelid llama,alpaca,guanaco,vicuna
oral cavity lips,cheek
gnath/o combining for or jaw
prognthia elongated mandile
bradygnthia shortened jaw
labia lip
labium single lip
cheil/o & labi/o combining form for lips
bucc/o combining form for cheek
buccal pertaining to cheek
palate forms roof of mouth
hard palate forms bony rostral of palate
soft palate flexible caudal portion of palate
tongue movable muscular organ
dent/o combining form for teeth
deciduous dentition
dentition refers to teeth as a whole
decidu/o combining form for shedding
incisor front tooth used for cutting
canine long pointed bone like tooth
fang having a tapering projection
cuspid having one point
premolar cheek tooth
bi-cuspid premolars with two points
molar caudally located permanant cheek tooth
enamel hard white covering on tooth
cementum bonelike connective tissue covers root of tooth
dentin connective tissue surrounding tooth pulp
pulp nerves,vessels and loose connective tissue
periodontia structures that support teeth
alveoli sockets
salivary glands group of cells in mouth
saliva moistens food
sialadan/o combining form for salivary glands
sial/o combining form for salivary glands
pharnyx cavity in caudal oral that joins respiratory,and GI systems
esophagus collapsible muscle tube that runs from mouth to the stomach
abdomen cavity located between diaphram and pelvis
lapar/o combining form for abdomen and flank
gastr/o combining form for stomach
monogastric one true stmach
ruminant one true stomach
pylorus narrow passage from stomach to duodenum
pylor/o gate keeper-narrow passage
rugae folds present in mucosa of stomach
enter/o small intestine
duodenum proximal first portion of small intestine
jejunum middle portion of small intestine
ileum distal portion of small intestine
cecum,colon,rectum,anus large intestine
cec/o combining form for cecum
col/o combining form for colon
rec/o combining form for rectum
an/o combining form for anus
proct/o combining form for anus and rectum
hepat/o combining form for liver
cyst/o combining form for cyst or sac of fluid
chol/e combining form meaning gall or bile
doch/o combining form meaning receptacle
pancreas elongated gland near the cranial duodnum
pancreat/o combining form for pancreas
prehension grasping of food
ingests taken in orally
mastication breaking food into smaller pieces
peristalsis wavelike contractions of smooth muscles
-stalsis contraction
defication empty bowels
adontia absence of teeth
anorexia lack or loss of appetite
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in abdomen
cholecystitis inflammation of the gallbladder
coprophagia ingestion of fecal material
dysphagia difficulty swallowing
-phagia eating or swallowing
gastritis inflammation of the stomach
gastroenteritis inflammation of stomach and small intestine
gingivitis inflammation of the gums
glossitis inflammation of the tongue
hematemesis vomiting blood
heptitis inflammation of the liver
hepatoma tumor of the liver
hepatomegaly abnormal enlargement of the liver
inappetence lack of desire to eat
malabsorption impaired uptake of nutrients from intestines
Created by: Ann Patterson



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