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Nutri- Feed

Feed Components

Feed is first broken down into ---- and ---- matter wet and dry matter or water and dry matter
You make a lot of money by padding food with excess water
Dry matter can then be broken down into organic matter and ash (or the gross mineral content)
Organic matter can be broken into nitrogenous matter and non-nitrogenous substances
Nitrogenous sunstance are combined from true protein, and non-protein nitrgoenous substnaces like (urea, H20 soluble vitamins)
Non-nitrogenous substances are comprised of carbohydrates and fats (fat solutble vitamins)
Carbohydrates are composed of .. soluble (NFE, starch and sugar) and insoluble (fiber: cellulose)
Proximate analysis of feed to find Crude protein or nitrogenous compounds utilizes Kjeldahl nitrogen x 6.25, this extracts all nitrogen
To find moisture content in the feed by proximate analysis.. baking it at 105 degree overnight and subtracting weight difference.
To get the ether extract you have to .. extract dry matter smaple with anhydrous ether after removing the moisture by baking it 105 degrees overnight
To find the crude fiber content by proximate analysis first you have to remove the moisture (baking) and then get to the ether extract before.. boil the EE residue in acid (to remove acid solubles), boild the extracted EE residue in alkaline (remove alkaline solubles), then place dried acid/alkali extracted residue in muffle furnance at 600 C overnight (oxidizes organic matter and produces ash)
Ether pulls out everything with a ... fat-like structure
Proximate analysis doesn't give anything on vitamins
Nitrogen free extract (CHO) = 100 - (moisture + ash + CP + EE + CF)
NFE nitrogen free extract
The Van Soest annaylsis splits feed sample into neutral and acid detergent reaction
Neutral detergent reagent removes cell contents such as ... leaving the .. Proteins, NPN, Sugars, starches, lipids, pectin, soluble minerals (NDS) to leave the Nuetral detergent fiber (NDF)
Acid detergent reagent removes cell contents such as ... to leave the ... hemicellulose (ADS) to leave the acid detergent fiber (ADF)
ADF (?) can be broken down with Kjeldahl and KMnO4 to find Acid detergent fiber, use Kjeldahl can find Adnin adn KMnO4 can find Ligning
The Van Soest analysis is done with mostly ruminant and some equine feed because proximate value doesn't give good values on fiber, ect.
Dry Matter is the amount contained in only the -- fraction, and is -------- free. DM fraction and is moisture free
Air-Dry Basis is generally assumed to be --% DM. Most feeds will equilibrate to ~--% DM after prolonged ---------- (aerobic) 90% DM, 90% DM eventually after prolonged storage
Air-dry and -- --- may be the same for some feeds. as fed
As-Fed food is the amount contained in the feed as it would be ...., Variable 20%-100% depending on feedstuff. fed to the animal, including water
As-fed basis is ------ weight and it has ------ nutrients. heavy weight and diluted nutrients
DM basis is ------ weight and it has ------- nutrients light weight and concentrated nutrients
Whenc onverting as-fed to DM the nutrient concentration will -------- and weight will -----. increase and decrease
When converting DM to as-fed nutrient will -------- and weight will -------. decrease and increase
Nutrient composition of feeds can be expressed in four ways: percent (most of the time), ppm (parts per million) its the same as mg/kilo, mg/pound, Mcal/kg (focuses on energy movement)
Digestibility can be calculated as long as you have (4) Feed consumption, nutrients of feeds, fecal excretion amount, and nutrient precent of feces
Digestible nutrient is the percent of the nutrient that ... will be digested. This value is routinely used (digestible, crude protein, digestible energy), while digestibility values are only used for calculation purposes
TDN is equal to total digestible nutrients
DCP digestible crude protein
DCF digestible crude fiber
DNFE Digestible nitrogen free extract
DEE Digestible Ether Extract
Energy utilization and distribution in animals.. Gross energy is filtered down into digestible energy (there is a small amount of energy that's lost in the urine and gas) then it filters down to metabolizable energy which is net energy
Net energy usage is summed up by two things: maintenance (Nem) and production (NEp)
Maintenance of the body energy relates to Basal metabolism, voluntary activity, heat to cool and warm
Production energy usage includes: work, growth, eggs, milk, feathers, wool, ect
Class one feeds are dry forages and roughage
Class two feeds are pasture, range and forages of fed grain
Class three feeds are fermented silages
Class four feeds are energy feeds like grains
Class five feeds are protein feeds, soybean meal, sunflower meal, ect.
Class six feeds are minerals
Class seven are vitamins
Measuring feed quality can be done through four ways: growth trials, digestibility trails, metabolic/balance trials, and fistulated animals
Growth trails are individuals or group fed animals, measure feed intake, measure weight gain/loss, and calculate feed efficiency.
Digestibility trails are: animals fed in individual crates or pens, feed intake measured and recorded, fecal excretion measured and recorded, calculate apparent digestibility.
Metabolic/Balance trials are there to ... calculate metabolizable energy, nitrogen balance or true digestibility
Fistulated animals are useful because fistulated animals you can dump several types of fee din nylon bags and see how much is absorbed.
Created by: kccroy