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Nutri- Enzymes

Enzymes and Hormones

(Def) Enzymes Proteins that are capable of catalyzing specific chemical reactions
-------- isolated the first enzyme it 1926, this enzyme was --------- from Jack Bean. Sumner isolated urease (worked with Urine)
In humans Urea is a ... But in ruminants waste product from urine metabolisms. However in ruminants they can utilize urea as a source of nitrogen.
Some enzyme facts: enzymes are --------- proteins
Some enzyme facts: enzymes are always --------- specific in their actions
Some enzyme facts: enzymes -------- increase (speed up) the chemical reaction
Some enzyme facts: enzymes often end with -ase
Some enzyme facts: enzymes often ... act alone, however, several require a cofactor
Some enzyme facts: enzymes are... sensitive to temperature and pH
Enzyme cofactors are often metal ions like Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Mn
Coenzymes are often complex organic molecules like: water souble vitams an example is Niacin, or Vit B3, which is important in conversion between NAD+/NADH
An enzyme with a cofactor is a ---------. haloenzyme
An enzyme without a cofactor is an --------, but functionality is reduced. apoenzyme
Hormone functions in general are (4): homeostasis (regulation), respond to emergency demands (stree, trauma), integration of growth, and regulation of sex reproduction
Three hormone categories: Polypeptides (glycoproteisn), steroids, and phenolic amines
Polypetides can yeild 3-1000 ----- ------ that occur in the three system places ... amino acids; occur in the brain (hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, posterior pituitary), Pancrease, thryroid, gut and the reproductive system (placenta, ovary, testis)
Steroids originate from ----- and are synthesized in the (3 places) -------- -----, Found in the adrenal cortex, embryonic membrane, reproductive system (ovary, placenta, testis)
Phenolic amines are synthesized in the ... thyroid, adrenal medula, and the pineal gland.
Hormones work through receptor sites at the cell found in different locations ... cell membrane (proteins have surface membranes), cytoplasm (steroids are lipids move through cell membranes much easier), and nuclear membrane (phenolic- small molecules that can go straight to the nuclear membrane and get an immediate response)
Receptors are often large protein ... macromolecules with high specificity and affinity.
There are two parts to receptor proteins.. recognition site (only recognize spfc) and teh activations site (enzyme activation, ion channel, ect)
Proteins hormones work through a .... second messenger system to create a cascading enzyme reaction
Steroid hormones pathway is utlized to start a production of ....., so it starts the ... something else, usually it starts the transciption of proteins, so it has a longer lag time before you see results.
Created by: kccroy