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Nurti- Rum Stom

The Ruminant Stomach

What happens to the microbes that inhabit the rumen? Microbes become lunch after the single cell organisms. This way the nutrients are absorbed. Plus through fermentation also add other nutrients
Ruminants stomach work as a continuous fermentation process so it needs/has frequent food intake, constant temperatures, constant pH, removal of end products, similar osmotic pressure to blood and dynamic environment.
Frequent food intake works on a continuous fermentation process since it ruminate even when not eating
Constant pH causes problems with changing feed because the alteration in feed types can cause alterations in the pH levels of stomach leading to all sorts of problems.
Unique attributes of the stomach are the esophageal or reticular groove, the ability to ruminate and the ability to eructation
Esophageal or reticular groove is something that calves have as a baby when they are still nursing. It is two folds of skint hat can close of access to the other three compartments, so the milk goes straight to abomasum. If it went to the rumen the milk would just rot.
Rumination is the process of chewing the cud; amount of rumination depends on diet. If they are on a grain based diet then the rumination will be brief because the grain is already processed vs hay which has never been processed.
the "raft" material within the rumen that floats on top of the fluid. It is this material that is ruminated and re-chewed to make heavier so it will sink into the digestive fluids
Eructation is belching which is a silent because it would stupid for a wild ruminant to belch loudly because it would give away his position. So the burp in their mouth and breath out the methane.
If there is a problem with eructation the animal with bloat and the only way to fix this is to: pop a hole in the rumen to get ride of the methane. This can be caused mostly by improper feeding practices: like feeding cull potatoes or feeding legumes which could cause a foamy bloat.
Regulation of stomach emptying runs through four steps: 1. Pylorus relaxes, 2. Acidic Food slips through; Acid entering the small intestines causes the pylorus to close; 4. Pylorus reopens when acidic chyme is neutralized
Why does not that much food go through to the small intestine? A small amount of food slips through because too much food going through would eat through the very thin walls of the small intestine. Since the SI has a pH of about 6-7 and the stomach likes pH 2.
Why causes the pylorus to close? The soon as the acid touches the small intestine it causes the pylorus to close
When does the pylorus open again? The pylorus reopens when the acidic chyme is neutralized, secretin is released which tells the pancreas to produce bicarb to neutralize the food contents
Small Intestines is the ... main site for enzymatic digestion and absorption
Enteritis is.. inflammation of the lining which interferes with digestion and absorption
There are three parts of the small intestine: duodenum, jejunum, Ileum
The Duodenum receives secretions from the: (3) places, and also helps with the... 1) pancreas, 2) gall bladder (bile), 3) intestinal walls; and causes lots of mixing
Jejunum is the main site for... digestion
Ileum is the main site for... absorption
The small intestine has ------- and --------- movement, it uses segmentation movements because the segments can contract independently. circular and longitudinal
Most attributes of the small intestines are used to.... (4) increase surface area. The four areas are length (40-50ft), villi, microvilli, gastric folds.
Enterocytes are defined as... highly absorptive cells.
Lactose intolerance occurs because as it is not digested it draws in a lot of water to try and water it down, leading to diarrhea
Cecum is defined as.. blind gut, important in the horse and rumen.
Large Intestine has two main functions..(2). Used also to store... 1. The main function is to use H2O and electrolytes; Storage of feces until it is expelled out the anus
Hindgut fermenters use microbes (bacteria only) and fermentaion ...; in their hindgut, the caecum and proximal colon. Microbes that are washed out cannot be digested and therefore high-quality protein is lost.
Foregut Fermeters have two sacs (a tubiform and a sacciform fore stomach) containing .... lots of microbes. These microbes consume glucose from cellulose but produce fatty acids that the animal can use for energy. (Microbes can also be digested further along the digestive tract as they are also a source of protein)
Pigs have ------- colon. Spiral
Birds have a colon that is... combined with the urinary tract in the cloaca.
Horses use both large and small colon.. important for hindgut fermentation and absorption
Humans have an ... ascending, transverse, and descending colon.
Chickens have a compartmentalized GI tract in (4) Crop, Gizzard, Pancreas, Small Large Intestine, and Cloaca
A crop is an ... area for storage, where the proventriculus which has gastric secretions and a bit of mixing.
The Gizzard is for grinding up food, it has very tough lining and is similar to the human stomach
Pancreas lies in the initial fold or duodenal loop
The small intestine is.. very small and doesn't really do much, it is coupled with the cloaca
Cloaca is the common excretory point.
Horses have specialer stomach its very ------, and they have a short, very ----- small intestine since they are hind gut fermenters and most of the activity happens there. small stomach and weak intestine
In ruminants heavier food will ---- directly into the reticulum. drop
-------- is released from S-cells of the small intestine. Pancreas secretion is stimulated by ------ nerves as the hormone hits it. It triggers the pancreas to release ------- Secretin is released and stimulates the vegas nerves; and it triggers the bicarb release
The pancreas secretes the enzymes: (3) ... ... ... and its most important job to release ...., as well as managing .... and ... production. Enzymes it releases: proteases, amylases, lipases. As well as bicarbonate (NaHCO3), and it also insulin and glucagon
Insulin and glucogon are produced produced in the islets of launderages (laundry washes)
Endocrine function of the pancreas has to do with Insulin from the beta cells and glucagon from the alpha cells.
Exocrine function has to do with enzymes and bicarbonate
Liver continuously secretes.. bile
bile is composed of water, phospholipids, bile acids, cholesterol, and bilirubin
Bilirubin is a product found in the break down of red blood cells
Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol (taurocholic and glycocholic)
Fat in chyme causes the of --- which travels in the blood to the ---- ------- to which contracts releasing ---- CCK causes the gall bladder to contract and release bile
Gall stones come in two varieties... pigment stones and cholesterol stones
Pigment stones are composed of calcium salt of unconjugated bilirubin normally conjugated with glucuronic acid)
Cholesterol stones are the most common, 50-70% cholesterol
The livers jobs are (6) gluconeogenisis, fatty acid and lipoprotein synthesis, glycogen synthesis (storage and break down), storage of fat-soluble vitamins, and numerous enzymes are produced.
Created by: kccroy



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