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Pathology245

Pathology Final VTT245

QuestionAnswer
Define definitive host. Harbors the adult, sexual, or mature stages of a parasite.
Define intermediate host. Harbors the juvenile, asexual, or immature stages of the parasite.
An infestation of lice is referred to as? Pediculosis
A common cause of otitis externa in dogs, cats, and ferrets. Otodectes cynotis
The salivary secretions of some female ticks are toxic and can produce a syndrome known as? Tick paralysis
Soft ticks are classified as? Argasid
Hard ticks are classified? Ixodid
Only the larval and nymph stages are parasitic. They imbibe large amounts of host blood. Spinose Ear tick, Argasid
This tick feeds almost exclusively on dogs and serves as an intermediate host for Babesia canis. Rhipicephalus spp. (Brown Dog Tick) - Ixodid
This tick can serve as a vector for Rocky Mountain spotted fever and tularemia. Dermacentor spp. (Rockey Mtn. Wood Tick/American Dog Tick) - Ixodid
This tick serves as a vector for Ehrlichia. Ambylomma americanum (Lone Star Tick) - Ixodid
This tick is the main culprit of Lyme disease. Ixodes spp. (Black-legged Tick) - Ixodid
What is the common name for a Trematode? Fluke
What is the common name for a Cestode? Tapeworm
What is the common name for a Nematode? Roundworm
What parasites are know to be VLM & OLM? Toxacara Leonia & Toxacara Canis (Nematode)
What parasite is know to be CLM? Ancylastoma caninum (Nematode)
What is the most commonly seen WBC? Neutrophil
Describe the inclusion Howell-Jolly Bodies. Basophillic nuclear remenants see in young erythrocytes as a response to anemia.
Describe the inclusion Schizocyte. Fragments of a erythrocyte.
Describe the inclusion Heinz Body. Round structures representing denatured hemoglobin.
Under what conditions would you see a Howell-Jolly Body Increased number seen due to splenic disorders. Can be a response to anemia.
Under what conditions would you see a Schizocyte? Usually caused by shearing of the RBC by intravascular trama.
Under what conditions would you see a Heinz Body? Caused by certain oxidant drugs or chemicals. Often seen due to diseases like lymphosarcoma & diabetes melittis in cats.
Describe the inclusion Keratocytes. "Helmet cells" or "Blister cells", believed to be caused by intravascular trama caused by bisection of the cell by fibrin strands.
Under what condition would you see a Keratocyte? Associated with hemangiosarcoma, neoplasia, glomerulonephritis, and various hepatic dieases.
Describe the inclusion Echinocytes. "Blur cells", spiculated cells with many short, evenly spaced blunt projections.
Under what condition would you see a Echinocyte? Caused by slow drying of the blood fim or when and EDTA tube is underfilled. Also see with renal disease and lymphosarcoma.
Describe the inclusion Rouleaux. A grouping of RBC in stacks.
Uner what condition would you see Rouleaux formations? Increased formations are seen wiht increased fibrinogen or globulin concentrations. Can also be seen in blood that has been refridgerated or kept to long before preparing a blood film.
What is the least commonly seen WBC? Basophil
What are the 3 granulocytes? Neutrophil, Basophil, Eosinophil
What are the agranulocytes? Monocyte & lymphocyte
Platelets are not complete cells, but pieces of cytoplasm that have been isolated & released from ____ that lives in the bone marrow. Megakaryocytes
This enzyme's major source is the liver(adult)or bone(young). Role is to assist in various chemical reactions. Alkaline Phosphate (ALP)
This enzyme's major source is hepatocytes. Its role is amino acid metabolism. This enyme is liver specific, determines hepatic cell damage. Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT)
This enzyme's role is amino acid metabolism, however is not liver specific. Increased number may indicate liver damage, strenuous exercise hemolysis or recent IM injection. Aspartate Aminotransferse (AST)
This enzyme's is an insoluble molecule derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin in the spleen. It eventually becomes part of bile. Bilirubin
This enzyme is a combination of albumin & globulins. It's role is oncotic blood pressure, transport mechanism and immunity. Total Protein (TP)
This enzyme is a binding & transport enzyme. It is 30-50% of the total plasma protein seen in the body. Albumin
This protein is synthesized from cholesterol and conjugated with glycine & taurine. Aids in fat absorption and modulates cholesterol levels. Bile Acids
This enzyme is a precursor to fibrin. The insolubile protein that forms the matrix of blood clots. Fibrinogen
This enzyme's major source is amino acids via liver processing. Urea is the end product of amino acid breakdown. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
This enzyme is found in skeletal muscle and as part of muscle metabolism. Is a waste product and is elimated through the kidneys. Creatinine (CRE)
This enzyme's major source is bones. It's role is energy storage, release and transfer, also carbohydrate metabolism. Inorganic Phosphorus (Iphos)
This enzyme's major source is bones. Role is maintenance of neuromuscular excitability & tone, maintenance of activity of many enzymes. Also facilitates blood coagulation. Calcium (Ca)
This enzyme's major source is the pancreas. It is also found in the salivary glands, liver & small intestines. It's role is breakdown of starches and glycogen in surgars. Amylase (AMYL)
This enzyme's major source is the pancreas and gastric mucosa. It's role is the breakdown of fatty acids and lipids. Lipase (LIP)
This cast is composed of protein and is clear, colorless, & somewhat transparent. Hyaline Cast
This is the most common type of cast. Granular Cast (Hyaline cast containing granules)
The presence of ___ casts indicates inflammation in the renal tubules. leukocyte casts
The presence of ____ casts indicates renal bleeding. Erythrocyte casts
This cast is usually wide with square ends and is highly refractile. Waxy casts
This cast contain many small droplets of fat that appears as refractile bodies. Fatty Casts
List the 6 bacterial arrangements. diplo (pairs), strepto(chains), staphylo(clusters), coccus(round), bacillus(rod), spirillum(spiral)
Define ubiquidus Found everywhere, soil, water, food, atmosphere, vegetation
Define oppertunistic. An organism that normally does not cause disease.
Give an example of an oppertunistic organism. E. coli
Define Obligate. A bacteria that is never part of normal flora and causes disease.
Define Fomites. Inanimate object that can transmit disease.
Define nosocomial. A hospital acquired infection.
Define Endemic. An organism that remains in a certain geographical area.
Define Epidemic. A sudden increase of disease cases.
Enriched medium that supports the growth of most bacterial pathogens. This is the most commonly used agar. Trypticase Soy Agar (Blood Agar)
Lactose-fermenting organisms produce ____ from lactose and grow as gran negative colonies. acid
General purpose media primarily used for agar diffusion antimicrobial sensitivity testing. Mueller Hinton Agar
What characteristics do gram+ cells have? Cells physically have a thicker cell wall. The cell wall contains greater amounts of peptidoglycan. Peptidoglycan acts as a barrier to decolorization.
What characteristics do gram- cells have? Cell wall is more complex. Less peptidoglycan, more lipopolysaccharide allows the cell wall to become decolorized.
Define Bacteriostatic. Inhibits replication of bacteria.
What Agar is used for antibiotic sensitivity testing? Mular Hinton
List 2 Gram + Cocci (GPC). Streptococcus & Staphylococcus
What does Red – round – clusters translate to? Staphylococcus
What is a Gram + Rods. Bacillus Spp.
List 3 Facultative Anaerobic Gram Negative Rods. e.Coli, klebsiella, samonella, yersinia pestis (plague), pasturella
List 2 Aerobic Gram Negative Rods. Brucella, bordatella, pseudomonas
True/False: Leptospira & Borrelia are spirochetes. True
Which tick causes lyme disease? Spirochette called borrelia, transmitted by Ixodes Tick
Created by: SassaVetTech