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Nutri- Physi

Comparitive Physiology of Various Digestive Tracts

Gastro-intestinal track is (4 things) Also known as the alimentary canal, It's a very long, flexible muscular tube; as long as inside the hose it can be thought of as still outside the body. The tube continues from the mouth to the anus and its very selective.
Functions of the GI track are (5): Storage (mostly true of ruminants); Prepares food for absorption; absorption; and it rejects undigested residue; plus fermentation.
Storage in the GI track has more to do with: Ruminants that can store food for weeks; where as non-ruminants don't store a lot of food, most of the time food is in and out in 16-24 hours.
Summary of the digestive system of a carnivore: GIT size is short, less volume with the exception of large cats. Compartmentalization is minimal, the rate of passage of food is fast and storage time is brief
Summary of the digestive system of a herbivore: GIT size is larger, with more volume. Compartmentalization occurs int he stomach or hindgut. The rate of passage is slow and the storage time is longer.
Summary of the digestive system of an omnivore: There is a great variation in digestive tracts.
Pigs and human have very similar digestive tract except for the cecum
Horses have a very small stomach, so they have to: eat them all the time, they are considered a grazing animal.
Mouth in a non-ruminant simple stomach/monogastric has four basic purposes Prehension (getting food into the mouth); Matication (teeth very based on diet); Degluittion (swallowing); and regurgitation
Saliva has six main jobs: Aids in bolus formation, adds moisture to food (lubrication), aids in taste mechanism, provides enzymatic actions and adds bactericidal lysozymes, plus it adds sodium bicarb.
Bolus formation is the creation of ball in order to swallow, saliva helps with this
Lysozymes bacteriocidal work to break down and kill bacteria, but its a limited number and species specific
Saliva levels can very in species to species: humans produce, where as cow produces. Humans produce 1.5 L, Cows produce 100-200 L.
Esophagus can be described as a: continuation of muscular tube connecting the mouth to the stomach. Using "peristaltic" is muscular movement in one direction is swallows. At the end of the is a cardiac sphincter is a powerful blocker/gateway to prevent food from going back up.
Heart burn is caused by burning of the lining of the esophagus when the cardiac sphincter fails to prevent acidic food from moving back and burning the esophagus
Non ruminant simple the main stomach function: storage, mixing (food + gastric secretions); Empties at a controlled rate; uses chemicals and enzymes as well as bacteriastats
The mixing of food is one of the most important jobs of the stomach, through: muscular contractions it mixes the food and gastric secretion into chyme.
Bacteriastat kills bacteria in the food; the animal with the most is: is Turkey Vultures, have a very acidic stomach because of what they eat. However ruminants have a high pH, because they eat forage
Ruggae are: folds in the lining of the stomach that act as paddles and facilitate mixing with gastric secretions
Fundus is the are in the stomach that allows for storage, its bigger in the ruminant but small in the monogastric stomach
Omentum is what holds everything in place inside the intestinal cavity, while also serving as an insulator
In the body region of the stomach there glands containing specialized cells: (2) Pareital cells and chief or peptic celss.
Pareital cells produce HCL
Chief or peptic cells produce Pepsinogen
Over production of enzymes in the stomach can cause ulcers especially in the stomach around the: fundus area because it is not as well protected. However the only sign of a gastric ulcer in a pig is usually a dead pig as it erodes the artery and they bleed out.
Which pigs usually die from uclers? Happens mostly in fast growing pigs because produce a lot of acid. Big problem 5 years ago so they developed a task force to deal with problem. Treatment was to feed courser foods because the finer/smaller foods create more acid.
Gastric secretion is initiated by (5) smell, taste and thought of food; gastrin (most important), acetylcholine, histamines and proteins
Gastric secretions are inhibited by (6) Acid, anithistamines, CCK, fat, OTC products and osmotic pressure
CCK is defined as: Is a hormone cholecystakinane, which is produced by the small intestinal cells
Fat inhibits acid because it slows gastric motility
The perfect world of the stomach is summarized by: food entering the stomach which stimulates muscle contractions, where the stomach wall secretes Gastrin (hormone) into blood; so the stomach glands secrete HCl, and acid stops gastrin secretion (pH is 1.5)
Anatomy of the ruminant stomach is quite special: it is located on the... left side of the animal; provides site for microbial fermentation (primary job); and is divided into four distinct compartments
The four distinct compartments are the: reticulum (honey comb); rumen (paunch/largest); omasum (manyplies); and the abamasum (true stomach)
The Rumen is filled with villa which can be as long as 3 cm. The rumen has several different sacks, like separate rooms, which is separated by muscular pillars (very powerful).
The reticulum is what catches debris as it combs through the food to keep out things (wires, nuts, bolts, ect) that might perforate the stomach. Can cx hardware disease
Hardware Disease traumatic gastritis and traumatic reticulitis. It is usually caused by ingestion of tramp iron in fodder or silage. Sharp metallic objects pass through the reticulum and settle in the rumen, and can irritate or even perforate its lining.
Omasum also known as the...; serves as a many plies, serves as filter, keeps larger particles of food, and only lets small particles
Cellulose Digestion: allows ruminants to consume low quality, fibrous feed which would not otherwise support life. It allows ruminants to be less dependent on diet to meet nutritional needs than non-ruminants. They have essential nutrients than non-ruminants b/c of microbes.
What is responsible for the cellulose digestion that occurs? Microbial population; the amount of bacteria (10^9-10^10). The bacteria could be cellulolytic, amylolytic, proteolytic, lipolytic, ammonia and methane producers, etc.
Protozoa will be higher is its based on a forage based, with a grain based diet there will be no protozoa.
In the rumen the bacteria can be as many as 200-250 different types. Each species is affected by diet because it affects pH
While 70-80% of the matter is fermented, about 20% of the matter is left to not ferment and just digest in the true stomach.
Created by: kccroy