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Test Monday 01/11

Endocrine, Digestive, Urinary & Reporductive

The esophagus meets the stomach at the? Cardiac Sphincter
Stomach meets small small intestines at the? Pyloric Sphincter
The divisions of the stomach are? (in order) Cardiac Sphincter, Fundus, Body, Pylorus, Pyloric Sphincter
The Pylorus is where ___ is secreted hydrochloric acid (HCI)
G cells produce and secrete? gastrin
What are the three stomach cells? Parietal (produce HCL), Chief (pepsinogen), & Mucous cells
What are rugae? The folds of the stomach
Name the Net-like structure that holds the intestine? Mesentery
Name the 3 segments of the small intestines? Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum
The small intestine is made of? Columnar cells
Name the 3 parts of the large intestine (in order)? Ascending, Transverse, & Descending Colon
The blood supply for the liver is called? Hepatic Portal System
80% of the blood flows via ____ to the liver? Portal vein
What are Kupffer cells? Kupffer cells filter bacteria & are liver specific
Hepatocytes secrete? hormones & bile
What are the contents of bile? bile salts, water, and bile pigments such as bilirubin
What is glycolysis? When the liver metabolizes carbs by converting excess glucose into glycogen for storage.
What hormone controls glycogenolysis? Glucagon
One of the most important alpha globulins produced by the liver. Prothrombin
The liver synthesizes _____ & _____, which transport lipids and fat-soluble vitamins throughout the body. Alpha and beta globulins
What are the 4 secretions of the pancreas? Sodium bicarbonate, Trypsin, Amylase, & Lipase
The pancrease is made of? Glandular epithelial cells
About 99% of the pancrease cells are arranged in clusters called ____ and constitute the exocrine portion of the organ. Acini
Endocrine portion of the pancrease secretes? Insulin & glucagon
What are the structures of the urinary tract? Kidneys, ureters, bladder & urethra
Function of the diuresis is under the control of what hormones? Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and Aldosterone
Two hormones produced by the kidney? Erythropoietin & prostaglandins
What is a Nephron and what is it composed of? The basic functional unit of the kidney. Consists of Renal Corpuscle, PCT, Loop of Henle, DCT?
What is osmosis? The passage of water across a semi-permeable membrane from a weaker to a stronger solution.
What is Diffusion? The passage of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
What is reabsorption? The passage of chemical substances from the lumen of the renal tubules into the renal capillaries, back into the body.
What is secretion? The passage of chemical substances from the renal capillaries into the lumen of the renal tubules, out of the body, into the urine.
The longest portion of the nephron is? PCT
What controls the DCT? Aldosterone
Glucose Threshold of a dog? Cat? Dogs: 180 mg/dlCats: 240 mg/ml
Aldosterone Iincreases the reabsorption of sodium into the bloodstream.
Anti-diuretic Horomone ADH acts on the DCT & collecting ducts to promote water reabsorption.
The ureters are made of? Smooth muscle
Transitional cells are found? In the bladder ONLY!
What is Ethylene glycol? Antifreeze
Symptoms of CRF? increased BUN, increased Creatinine, & isothenuria
Minimum of lethal dose of Ethylene Glycol in dogs? Cat? Dog: 4.4 – 6.6ml/kgCat: 1.4ml/kg
What is Diabetes Insipidud? A decrease in the pituitary release of ADH.
What is the most common crystal found in urine? Calcium Oxylate
If the urine has more hydrogen (H+) the pH would be? Alkaline
If the urine has a decreesed amount of hydrogen (H+) the pH would be? Acidic
What is Diabetes Mellitus? Deficiency of insulin or an inability of insulin to function.
What are Ketones? formed during incomplete catabolism of fatty acids
What are the 5 "C's" Cells, Casts, Crystals, Critters, Crap
List the 5 types of cells seen in urine? Erythrocytes, Leukocytes, Squamous Epithelial Cells, Transitional Cells, Renal Epithelial Cells
What is a cast? Formed in the nephron, secreted protein precipitates in acidic conditions and forms casts.
Hyaline Casts -Clear, colorless, and somewhat transparent structures.-Composed only of protein.-Usually only identified in dim light.-Numbers are increased with renal irritation, fever, poor renal profusion, or general anesthesia.
Granular Casts -Hyaline casts containing granules.-Most common type of cast.-May be coarse or fine.-Seen with acute nepheritis.
Leukocytes Casts -The presence of leukocyte casts indicates inflammation in the renal tubules.
Erythrocytes Casts Indicate renal bleeding.
Waxy Casts -Usually wider, with square ends.-Highly refractile.-Indicates chronic, severe degeneration of the renal tubules.
Fatty Casts -Contain many small droplets of fat that appears as refractile bodies.-Frequently seen in cats with renal disease because they have lipid in their renal parenchyma.-Suggestive of degeneration of the renal tubules.
What factors control the type of crystal formed? urine pH, concentration, and temperature
Triple Phosphate Crystal "Coffin Lids" - Alkaline urine
Amorphous phosphates Crystals Alkaline urine
Amorphous urate Crystals Acidic urine
Ammonium biurate Crystals "Thorn Apples"
Calcium Oxylate Crystals "Envelopes" - Acidic Urine
Uric Acid Crystals Acidic urine
Uric Acid crystals are normal in what breed of dog? Dalmations
Leucine Crystlas Highly refractive, acidic urine
Tyrosine Crystals Acidic urine, fine needle groupins
Bilirubin Crystals yellow needles, acidic urine
Cystine Crystals Hexagonal plates, acidic urine
List critters seen in urine? - Capillaria plica bladder worm of dogs- Dirofilaria- Dioctophyma renale kidney worm of dogs- sperm- Bacteria (rods & cocci)
List "crap" seen in urine? - Mucus threads
Immature sperm cells are called? Germ cell
Where are sperm produced? Testes
What hormones are produced by the testes? testosterone
Where do sperm mature? In the head and body of the epididymis
How is testosterone produced? Stimulation by LH (lutinizing hormone)
What stimulates the production of sperm? FSH = Follicle Stimulating Hormone
Define Monestrous one cycle per year, usually seasonal breeders.
Define olyestrous more than one cycle per year, continuous.
Define Seasonally Polyestrous cycles continuously in specific seasons.
What controls the estrous cycle? Hormones produced by the ovaries and the pituitary gland
The Corpus luteum secretes? Progesterone
What horomones are produced during Proestrus? FSH, LH & Estrogen
What produced estrogen? The follicle
Estrus is what? Period of sexual receptivity
What causes ovulation? LH
What are the stages of estrus (in order)? 1. Proestrus2. Estrus3. Diestrus4. Anestrus
What is Diestrus? Post-ovulation stage
What does the Corpus Luteum secrete? progesterone
What is Anestrus? No estrous cycle, last stage of estrous
What are the gestation of the dog and cat? Dog = 57-63 days, cat = 65 days
Oxytocin is produced by? Posterior pituitary
What does Oxytocin do? stimulates uterine contractions & milk let-down
Prolactin is produced by? Anterior pituitary
What does Prolactin do? Maintains the corpus leutum during pregnancy & Stimulates the mammary glands to fill with milk at parturition.
What is the 1st milk? Colostrum
List the majory glands of the endocrine system. Thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, adrenal, kidney, pancreas, ovary, testis
What is the master gland? Pituitary
What influences the Pituitary Gland? Hypothalamus
Growth Hormone (GH) Promotes body growth Regulates metabolismEncourages protein synthesis
Prolactin (PRL)- Triggers and maintains lactation
Thyroid-stimulating Hormone (TSH)- Stimulates the growth and development of the thyroid gland.
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)- Stimulates the growth and development of the adrenal cortex
Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH)- Stimulates the growth & development of the ovarian follicles.Stimulates the follicle lining to produce & secrete ESTROGEN.Stimulates spermatogenesis.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)- Completes the follicle development process.Can cause OVULATION.Can cause the development of the CORPUS LUTEUM-Which produces PROGESTERONE, which maintains pregnancy.Can stimulate the testes to develop & produce TESTOSTERONE.
Posterior Pituitary stores? ADH & Oxytocin, does not produce horomones
What horomones are produced by the thyroid? T3, T4, & Calcitonin
Parathyroid hormone - works opposite to calcitonin to maintain blood calcium levels.
What are the two adrenal glands? Adrenal cortexAdrenal medulla
Adrenal Glands produce? Glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoids & Sex hormones from cholesterol
What are the 3 glucocorticoids? Cortisone, Cortisol, & Corticosterone
Cortisol- aka hydrocortisone, influences the metabolism of sugars and has a anti-inflammatory effect.
Cortisone- similar to Cortisol, and can be prepared synthetically. Useful in treating inflammatory conditions.
Mineralocorticoids- Regulates electrolyte levels.The primary one is ALDOSTERONE.Reabsorbs sodium, excretes potassium.
Sex Hormones produced in the adrenal glands?- Androgens- maleEstrogens- femaleMaintain secondary sex characteristics (beard & breast development)These hormones are also produced in the ovaries & testes.
Adrenal Medulla- Develops from nervous tissue.Produces (catecholamines):EpinepherineNorepinepherineChemicals derived from amino acidsWorks with "Fight-or-flight"
Epinepherine regulates- heart rate, dilates bronchioles, and stimulates the production of glucose for energy.
Norepinepherine regulates- Constricts blood vessels and raises blood pressure.
Metabolism is controlled by? The Pancreas
The Pancreas secretes? Somatostatin- inhibits the secretion of insulin & glucagon
Created by: SassaVetTech



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