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Nutri- Intro to

QuestionAnswer
Socrates (470-?) thought that food was supposed to replace (470-399) Food was supposed to replace loss of water from skin and loss of heat, you have to replace what was lost
Hippocrates (460- ?) "Father of Medicine" and that weight loss during fasting was due to .. (460-364 BC) Weight loss during fasting was due to "Insensible Perspiration" from skin and loss of heat
The history of nutrition stems from the greeks study of the four elements Fire, Air, Earth and Water with the basic properties were reflected in these hot, cold, wet, dry
Advances in science were halted for hundreds of years because all alchemy revolved around alchemy, everyone was so obsessed with turning things to gold, no one stepped outside of the world of science
During the Renaissance Leonardo Da Vinci who was a mathematician, physicist, and naturalist made an early observation hat No animal (whether of land or air could live in an atmosphere which could not support a flame), aka can't survive without oxygen
Antoine Lavoisier (1743-?) is considered to be the father of modern chemistry as he established the Law of Conservation of Mass and gave oxygen its name but he also discovered that combustion was oxidation and as he applied this theory to animal heat he began to work with respiratory quotients and was the first to use environmental chamber/ crudely did respiratory quotation. So he is recognized as the father of nutrition
As chemicals groups called nutrients discovered the first three were discovered in 1827 by ----- and they were (3) Prout, The three nutrients were carbohydrates, lipids and proteins
By the mid 1800's four nutrient groups identified and experiments were being conducted to determine the function, the fifth was minerals
The fifth nutrient group was theorized by ------- ----- who performed crude experiments about -------. However at the time nobody believed him. Nikolai Lunin, fifth group was vitamins
In 1906 however -.-. -------proved Lunin's theory correct. F.G. Hopkins
In 1912, Casimir Funk isolated an ----- compound that was to cure beri-beri. which was a Amine, Beri-Beri (I can't, I can't) is a thymine deficiency treated with B complex vitamins although at the time they thought it was just one vitamin not a family of 8 members
From 1913-?, individual vitamins were identified with ___ first and the others following. 1913-1948, Vitamin A, then B, then C blah blah
Vitamin K get its name non sequitor because Vitamin K is a blood clotting factor and the scientist who found it was from Denmark where coagulate is spelled with a K so it became vitamin K.
Nutrition was recognized as a separate science in 1933 by the Academy
Today nutritionists are researching (4) Refinement of nutrient requirements in both, Nutrient interrelationships because some work synergistic/antagonistically; Bioavailability to the cells in the body once its absorbed; Nutraceuticals (ginsing, ect)
Commonalities between Plants, Animals and Microbes: (2) Similar Components (carbs, proteins, lipids, minerals, vitamins) and similar chemical process (glycolysis, Krebb's Cycle, Electron Transport (Oxidative Phosphorylation)
There are two major organism groupings: Autotrophs (self providers) and Hetertrophs (eat preformed)
How do the two groups differ? Autotrophs require simple inorganic molecules (ie water, nitrate, sulfates, and phosphates). Heterotrophs require pre-formed complex organic molecules (ie carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins).
What the two groups do: Autotrophs synthesize complex organic molecules (ie Carbs, lipids, proteins) where as Heterotrophs eat them. Heterotrophs have to rely on the plant kingdom for nutrients.
The formula used by autotrophs to synthesize complex organic molecules is the one for photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O --> C6H12O6 + 6O2
Heterotrophs use combustion (oxidation) to use the organic molecules represented by this formula: C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (ATP)
Most food nutrients as ingested are of no value because... you have to be able to digest and absorb it so the GI tract is highly selective about what it lets out into the body
Nutrients are used to support (4 things): Growth, Maintenance, Work, Production
(Def) Digestion The physical, chemical, and enzymatic breakdown of foods in the digestive tract prior to absorption. This takes places just in the GI tract provided mostly by mastication, and enzymatic breakdown transforming it into something that can be absorbed.
(Def) Absorption The movement of substances (nutrients) from the digestive tract into the blood or lymph, this can be passive or active
(Def) Metabolism catabolism and anabolism; all of the processes which occur to nutrients after digestion and absorption; where nutrients go, how they get there, ect.
(Def) Anabolism Building up of body tissue and chemical components
(Def) Catabolism Tearing down of body tissue and chemical components
Metabolism is similar in almost all animals since: Glucose metabolized similarly; amino acids metabolized similarly (protein synthesis is universal); Minerals and vitamins have similar functions in all animals, bu there are some differences between species.
Essential/Indispensable Nutrients These are nutrients that must be supplied in the diet because the cells of the animal cannot synthesize the nutrient at all or not at a rate to meet cellular demands (Don't eat it you die)
Non-essential/Dispensable Nutrients Nutrients which can be synthesized at a rate by animal cells to meet cellular demands and therefore do not have to be in the diet (aka your body can make them)
It is important to remember that nutrients: both essential and non-essential nutrients are required by all animal cells for maximum cell metabolism.
Created by: kccroy