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Large Animal VetNurs

Up to Small Ruminant Handling and Procedures done

QuestionAnswer
Basic PE of Ruminants What are some things to evaluate? History, environment, food and water sources. Visual observation: posture, behavior, body condition, alertness. TPR, Heart/Lung auscultation, assessment of rumen function, hydration status, MM, lymph nodes, udder/milk exam, rectal exam, feces/urine.
Far Exam Note and record what features of the environment? Feed/water. Cleanliness. Feces.
Far Exam Not and record body posture and behavior to assess what five attributes? Mentation. Gait/Lameness. Respiratory effort. BCS. ID.
Body Condition Scoring (BCS) Why is it so important to bovine medicine? May indicate disease, quality of feed, risk for infertility, dystocia, and ketosis, or low milk production.
Body Condition Scoring (BCS) Evaluating Dairy vs Beef: How is it different? Scoring system: Dairy (5 point). Beef (9 point).
Near Exam What to remember? Be Systematic. Record vitals. Auscult Carefully: heart, lungs, rumen.
Bovine Normal TPR? T: +/- 101.5 F HR: 60-80 bpm RR: 12-36 bpm
How frequent should rumen contractions be? (Rc) 1-3 per minute
Heart Auscultation - Bovine Base of the heart lies: cranial to the elbow
Heart Auscultation - Bovine True or False: The apex of the heart lies caudal to elbow at 6th intercostal space? True
Heart Auscultation - Bovine Left side? LAM (Left Aortic valve (4th ICS) Mitral valve (5th ICS)
Heart Auscultation - Bovine Right side? AV Tricuspid valve (3rd ICS)
Lung Auscultation - Bovine Name some important things to remember. Cows have 13 ribs. Steep angled diaphragm. Lungs located from the 11th rib forward to the point of the elbow. Listen for crackles, wheezes, no sound, emphysema. Rate & Effort important.
Withers Pinch Test - Bovine What is it? How is it performed? Check for abdominal pain. Cows in pain stand hunched w/elbows abducted. Pinch at withers. Normal cow will dorsoflex. Causes of pain: hardware disease, abomasal ulcers, SI (small intestine) gas distension.
Rumen Evaluation Which side of the cow should you evaluate the rumen contractions in the paralumbar fossa? Left... also feel for waves
Rumen Evaluation How do you perform the far exam? Shape of the abdomen is observed from behind. Both right and left silhouettes should be similar as asymmetry and enlargement indicate bloat.
Rumen Evaluation Gas accumulations will result in a ____ when percussing finger on the abdominal wall of a cow. "ping"
Bovine Abdominal Shapes The pear shape is: normal
Bovine Abdominal Shapes The apple shape is: abnormal
Bovine Abdominal Shapes What does a "papple" shape indicate? Abnormal: left side apple shaped and right side pear shaped.
Bovine Mammary Gland Evaluation What are we looking for? Symmetry between quarters. Abnormal glandular consistency-edema, hardening, acute swelling. Abnormal milk consistency. Strip milk from each quarter: water, flakes, serum. Record findings for each quarter.
Bovine Urinalysis What are we evaluating? Check for ketones. Stimulate urination. Strip in stream. Wait 15 seconds. Smaller or greater ='s ketosis. Could indicate insufficient feed intake.
Bovine Fecal Characteristics Cattle defecate __ to __ times a day. 12, 18
Bovine Fecal Characteristics True or False: Feces has a semi-solid "cow-plop" consistency without distinct form. True
Bovine Fecal Characteristics Normal color? Dependent on diet: green to dark brown
Bovine Fecal Characteristics Undigested roughage fibers are _______ in the feces. Not normal. May indicate dysfunction of the rumen/reticulum.
Bovine Fecal Characteristics When performing an examination, remember to take into account: diet, environment, cow status
Cattle Behavior True or False: do not work from behind cattle (blind spot), but work from their sides. True
Cattle handling should be: slow, methodical, intentional, and precise
The point of balance for cattle is the: shoulder. Cattle will move forward when handler crosses the point of balance of each animal. If approached from behind the shoulder, they generally move forward. If approached from the front of the shoulder, they tend to move backward.
True or false: Different behaviors are exhibited according to breed, sex, age. True
Bovine breed categories are classified as: Dairy or Beef breed
Beef animals are ___ handled by humans, and therefore resist handling and restraint. They are highly suspicious of pens and chutes. rarely
Dairy breeds, particularly female, are handled _____, with lactating cows being milked twice daily and receiving food in a controlled setting. frequently
Cattle prods should only be used when ______. Apply them only to areas of ________, never the ______. other methods have failed. large muscle mass. head.
A chute is designed to hold ____ animal at a time. one. Danger to them and us lies in the violent throwing of their head which is their primary method of defense.
True or false: The tail should not be used to move or lift a recumbent bovine. True. Bovine tails have smaller, easily broken vertebrae, and not as strong as horse tails.
What is a tail jack? How is it performed? A tail hold used for short periods of restraint. Stand behind the cow, off to the side, grasp the tail at the base with both hands, lift tail directly up and over the back keeping the tail on the midline.
What is Tailing. Why is it used? (Tail twist) Variation of the tail jack used to encourage forward movement and can also be directed off to the side. Avoid excessive pressure.
Describe tail ties and why they are used. Tying the tail out of the way for cleanliness during some procedures. NOT a form of restraint. Tie tail over the back to the opposite forelimb or around the neck.
Cattle ___ as capable as horses in delivering hard, fast kicks with hind legs. ARE
What is "Cow-kicking?" The common tendency of cattle to swing the kicking leg forward, then laterally, then out behind them.
Can a cow kick straight behind them (like a horse) or with both hind legs at the same time? YES
What are hobbles used for? To prevent kicking. Sometimes used on dairy cows that have proven in the past to kick.
What is a flank rope? Rope places pressure on the flanks to discourage kicking. Never place rope directly on the udder or prepuce.
What is Casting? The method of forcing an animal to the ground, usually with ropes that apply firm, constant pressure to sensitive points on the body.
True or false: When using a Casting technique, cattle usually respond by lying down with little struggle. True
When casting, the number one thing to remember is ___ followed by never trap the ___, ___, or the ____ in the ropes. Control the head! Udder, prepuce, scrotum
Risk of bloat from a recumbent ruminant can be minimized by placing them in ____ ____ which positions the rumen for observation of signs of bloat. Right lateral. Minimize time in any recumbent position.
One method in casting is using a casting harness. Pulling ____ on the free end forces the animal to lie down. caudally
True or false: Cattle tend to resist venipuncture so should not be attempted on an unrestrained animal. True. The body must be restricted in movement, usually in a chute or head catch gate. Placing a halter in addition, may be helpful.
When performing venipuncture on a bovine, site is cleaned with ___. What needle gauge and length is most common? alcohol. 18 g / 1 1/2 inch
What are the most common sites of venipuncture in cattle? Jugular, Coccygeal vein (ventral tail vein). Tech Note: Milk vein is easy to see but should not be used.
When performing coccygeal (tail) vein venipunture on cattle, the vessels are about ___ to ___ inches beneath the skin directly at ___ under the hemal arches. 1/2 - 1 inch. Midline.
When performing coccygeal (tail) vein venipunture on cattle, angle the needle ___ to ___ degrees between the vertebrae. If you hit bone, ___ retract, continue to aspirate until in the lumen. 45 - 90. slowly
When performing coccygeal (tail) vein venipunture on cattle, if an artery is accidentally entered: Apply 60 seconds of pressure to avoid hematomas
Why are subcutaneous abdominal (milk) veins (both right and left) rarely used for venipunture? They are prone to prolonged and pronounced bleeding.
Describe the steps to collecting urine in cattle. In females encourage urination by "titillating," by stimulating the perineal area. The skin beneath the vulva is stroked w/ fingers/straw until urination occurs. Don't hold the tail. It is distracting to the cow. Midstream (not initial) is preferred.
Some clinicians have been successful in obtaining a voided sample from male cattle by ___ the inside of the ___ using the threads of a capped tube. rubbing, sheath
Adult female cows can be catheterized with rigid or flexible ___ ___. A ___ to ___ diameter is suitable. They should always be ___. urinary catheter, 12 to 20 French, sterile
Male cattle are ___ ___ to catheterize. almost impossible
In cattle, cystocentesis can be performed on ___. calves
Name two important reasons Mastitis diagnosis is important. For the health of the animal and for the health/quality of the milk consumed by humans/calves.
True or False: Milk evaluation is critical in diagnosing mastitis. It is almost always caused by ___. True, bacteria
Cattle Milk Sampling Describe the four steps in order: Wash teat w/ sanitizing solution. Start at far teats. Dry teats thoroughly w/ individual paper towels. Grasp teat at base, pinch gently w/ thumb & finger. Slide the "pinch" distally. Release/return to base. Collect sample in strip cup or CMT paddle.
What does CMT paddle stand for? Describe the test. California Mastitis Test paddle. The paddle has four wells. Chemical added to the milk to read the "somatic cell count" for severity of inflammation.
Withdrawal times. What is this referring? Time period required by law in which milk from a treated animal can not be used for human consumption. The owner/dairymen must be notified of all withholding times when the veterinary team administers or prescribes medication.
Medication in feeds ___ ___ reliable. are not (but can be done)
Balling guns are tools that: place bolus (pills) in back of mouth of cattle
Describe the proper method for using a balling gun: Head restrained at a natural elevation. Loaded balling gun is placed in the mouth through interdental space, over the tongue, then directed over the midline to the back of the mouth. Don't wedge instrument into pharynx or "pop" bolus.
What is "Drenching?" A ___ ___ can be used to prevent chewing on syringe or gavage tubes. Delivery of liquids with a large oral dose syringe slowly to prevent aspiration. Frick Speculum
___ and ___ ___ do not require use of a speculum. Goats, neonatal sheep
Intravenous Injections Jugular veins are: most commonly used. Also the most common site for IV catheters (10-14 g, 2-3" long).
Intravenous Injections For small volumes, name three possible vein sites that can be used. cephalic, coccygeal, auricular
Never inject in the ___ ___ of cattle. milk vein
True or false: Only Federally Accredited Veterinarians may perform TB tests. True
Describe the process of performing a Tuberculosis (TB) test on cattle. Tuberculin is given ID (caudal tail fold). Wait 72 hours. Injection site evaluated for inflammatory/allergic reactions. Thickened skin or pain at injection site is suspicious 4 positive response. Further testing of the animal is needed if this occurs.
Intramammary Infusion True or False: Medications (especially antibiotics) are often infused into the teat to treat diseases of the udder. True. Remember milk withholding times apply.
Intramammary Infusion Describe the process of performing this treatment. Milk udder prior to treatment, dispose of contaminated milk (not on the ground). Hands should be washed (new exam gloves). Each teat cleaned and dried with separate towel. The teat is dipped in germicide starting on furthest teat. Infuse near to far.
Handling Sheep They are timid animals that do best in small groups. Avoid trying to grab them by their ___ or ___. legs or wool
Handling Sheep What is the best technique for restraining a sheep while remaining standing? Trap against a wall or in a corner and grasp around neck, can grab flank skin for additional security. Move slowly, don't chase them around the pen.
What is the best way to "sit sheep up?" "Sitting Up" Sheep. Hold sheep against your braced knees w/ one hand under its chin & one on its rump. Turn head to rear w/ one hand while forcing the rump down against your leg with the other. When they are no longer standing, lift front leg & sit them securely on rump.
Blood Sampling (Sheep) What is the most common vein used? What are two other possibilities? Jugular vein. Cephalic & Femoral.
Blood Sampling (Sheep) What needle is most commonly used? Name two positions to attempt the draw. 20 gauge/1" Sheep can be in a standing position or in "set up" position
Urine Collection (Sheep) In ___ sheep, you can hold their nostrils and mouth shut for ___ seconds to induce urination. Female. 45 seconds.
IM injection (Sheep) Part wool/hair. Avoid ___. Preferred site is the ___. gluteals. Lateral cervical "mm"
SC Injections (Sheep) Preferred needle gauge and length? Name three possible sites. 18 g/1/4" Lateral neck, Axilla, Flank fold
Describe the steps to trim the hoof in sheep and goats. Toe should be cleaned out. Outer hoof wall cut to remove overgrowth. Bring the wall down to the sole. Make the outer wall parallel with the coronary band. The inner hoof wall is then cut with more inside wall than outside wall being removed.
Hoof trim in goats and sheep The ___ should not be cut unless it is badly overgrown. heel
What are some reasons that tail docking is performed on sheep? Reduce accumulation of feces. “Fly Strike.”
If performing a tail dock on a sheep, what vaccination must be given or already on board before performing the procedure? Tetanus vaccine
When performing a tail dock on a sheep, what is the proper area to remove at? Mid to distal extent of caudal tail fold. Vulva and anus should not be exposed.
Name four methods of performing a tail amputation (tail docking). Emasculator, Heat cautery, sharp excision, Elastrator band (controversial due to ischemic necrosis).
True or false: The AVMA opposes routine tail docking of cattle. When medically necessary, tail amputation must be performed by a licensed veterinarian. True
Handling Goats Curious, independent animals. Can become aggressive. What might you watch for in this situation? What are two methods to gain cooperation from goats? head butting. Use feed or leader goat to move.
Goat Restraint True or false: by the beard or horns can be held near the base. True
Goat Restraint What position is best? Lateral recumbency (a lot like a dog)
Goat Restraint For nail trimming, what is one effective technique? Simply restrain the goat by pressing the goat against your legs with your arms. Left hand holds the foot while trimming with the right hand.
Sheep and goats are more sensitive to ___. Toxicity signs can include: lidocaine. Muscular tremors, severe depression, hypotension, occasionally convulsions.
A Cornual Nerve Block is used for: Used for desensitization of the horn & horn base for dehorning surgery. The block is performed differently for cattle and goats, since the innervation (distribution of nerves to a body part) is different.
True or false: sheep are rarely dehorned. True
Why are there commonly overlapping cautery circles created with a disbudding iron when used to disbud a kid? To de-scent them at the same time. Scent glands are just caudal to the horns.
When castrating a small ruminant, the procedure is normally performed within ___ ___. Although, pets are common done at ___ ___. 1st week. 5-6 months.
True or false: early castration of small ruminants may retard penile urethra (narrowing). true
When penile urethra narrowing occurs in small ruminants that were castrated when young, what condition can occur? They are prone to blockage with urinary calculi.
When performing a castration on a small ruminant, what vaccination should be given or confirmed to be current? tetanus antitoxin or toxoid
What are three methods used to castrate small ruminants? Knife castration. Elastrator. Emasculatome (Burdizzo)
___ flank approach to C-section in small ruminants, the ___ ___ block anesthetic approach is used. Left, inverted L
True or false: Llamas and alpacas are the oldest domestic animals in the world (domesticated around 6000 years ago). True
Llamas are mainly used as ___ and ___ animals. pack and guard
Alpacas are generally meant for ___ and ___ production. meat and wool
Reproduction Camelid females are ___ ___ and breed throughout their life. induced ovulators
Reproduction Camelid females have ___ teats. four
Reproduction Gestation period for llama and alpaca? llama: 350 days and alpaca 335 days
Reproduction Newborn camelids are called: Cria
True or false: twins are rare in camelids. They usually produce one offspring per parturition. True
Handling Camelids What are best practices? Moved into a position aligned w/ the side of a pen w/ head in a corner. Move your hand smoothly & steadily from behind the eye to the lower neck, then slide the hand up to behind the ears while stepping in to bring the other hand under the chin.
Handling Camelids What is a “bracelet” hold? Why is it used? Place the forefinger & thumb into the groove of the lower jaw. Helps to steady the animal.
What does the term "Cushing" (Kushing) mean, in reference to camelids? What are some reasons this occurs? Lying down with all four legs underneath. Some camelids will do this when stressed (just work with this position). It is also the breeding position.
When performing an Ear Squeeze "Ear Twitch" on a camelid, remember: Grasp only at the base of the ear and squeeze.
Where is the jugular vein accessed on a camelid? Location of the jugular vein within the jugular groove, lying between the transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae laterally and the trachea medially.
Hoof Trimming (Toenail trimming) How is this performed on a camelid? The first cut, is along the point of the nail, this will bring the nail down to the length you want it. The second and third cuts will be down the sides, again keeping in line with your alpaca’s pad.
When performing jugular venipuncture on a camelid, what size needle is commonly used? 18 g/1 1/2"
What does it mean when a horse is licking and chewing? When they are coming down out of a sympathetic nervous system (SNS) or stress response back into parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) relaxation range. They were worried about a problem but then felt relief because they figured it out.
What is one way that a horse might show they are apprehensive? lean away from you
True or false: The family dog can reassure the horse. true
Horses are designed by nature to eat ___ hours per day. 16
Veterinarians often schedule at feeding or turn-out time. Not ideal
True or false: horses are herd animals. True
Untie head ___ when backing out 1st
Horses ___ look up. rarely
People retain less than ___ of what they are told. 20%
Horses are very ___ but have a good memory. forgiving. This is why making their first training experience a positive one.
The horse, is a prey animal, and depends on ___ as its primary means of survival. flight. Natural predators are cougars, wolves, and bears.
A horses "spookiness" or bad behavior is actually usually caused by: their advanced perception. Stimuli that remains undetected by humans will be picked up by a horse.
A horse has a very ___ response time. fast
Horses can be ___ from frightening stimuli. desensitized
True or false: horses categorize most experiences in one of two ways: a) something not to fear, so ignore it or explore it, or b) something to fear, so flee. True
Horse are easily dominated. If done correctly, human dominance can easily be established during training without causing the horse to ___ ___ ___. become excessively fearful
Horses exert dominance by controlling the ___ of their peers. This is the key to training/working with them. movement
Horses communicate through both ___ and ___ ___. vocalization and body language
What does it mean when a species is precocial? Their newborns are neurologically mature at birth.
A horse's ___ is its primary detector of danger. vision
True or false: horses have very bad depth perception when using only one eye. True. Their perception increases x5 when they are using both eyes. Binocular vision.
True or false: horses have fairly good night vision, although their contrast sensitivity is not as keen as a cats. True.
Horses have an acute ability to detect movement. How can this affect their behavior. They are more flighty on windy days.
Horses have an almost ____ field of vision. Where are their blind spots? panoramic. Directly in front and behind them.
True or false: a horse can see two things at once , one from each eye. Each side of each brain works independently, so they need to be taught something twice. Once on each side. True. Always make sure a horse knows you are there by approaching from the side. Left shoulder is usually how the horses are trained.
The expression in a horse's eye is thought to indicate their behavior. For example, wide open with white showing (and not an Appaloosa) may indicate they are ___, but half closed could indicate that they are ___. scared. sleepy.
Horses have keen hearing (superior to ours) that they use for three primary functions: to detect ___, to determine the ___ of the sound, and to provide sensory information that allows the horse to recognize the identity of these sources. sound, location
Horses' tactile sensation or touch is extremely ___. Their entire body is as sensitive as our ___. sensitive. fingertips.
Horse Body Language: Body Signals If a horse's tail is: High They are alert or excited
Horse Body Language: Body Signals If a horse's tail is: Low It is a sign of exhaustion, fear, pain, or submission.
Horse Body Language: Body Signals If a horse's tail is: Held high over the back (seen in most foals) They are playful or are very alarmed
Horse Body Language: Body Signals If a horse's tail is: Swishing They are irritated
Horse Body Language: Body Signals If a horse's legs are: Pawing They are frustrated
Horse Body Language: Body Signals If a horse's legs are: One front-leg lifted Can be a mild threat (or a normal stance sometimes when eating).
Horse Body Language: Body Signals If a horse's legs are: A back-leg lifted Is often a more defensive threat
Horse Body Language: Body Signals If a horse's legs are: Stamping Indicates a mild threat or protest (or they may be getting rid of insects or flies biting their legs.
Horse Body Language: Body Signals Interpreting facial expressions: Snapping This is seen in foals showing submission to an older horse. They will open their mouths and draw back the corners, then open and shut their jaws.
Horse Body Language: Body Signals Interpreting facial expressions: Jaws open with teeth exposed this shows aggression or possible attack
Horse Body Language: Body Signals Interpreting facial expressions: Flehmen response This is caused by an intense or unusual smell, usually in stallions when they sense a mare in heat. They stick their nose in the air and curl the upper lip over their nose.
Horse Body Language: Body Signals Interpreting facial expressions: Flared nostrils usually means they are excited or alert
Horse Body Language: Body Signals Interpreting facial expressions: showing white around the eyes usually means they are angry or scared. Note: White around the eyes is also a normal characteristic of the Appaloosa breed.
Horse Body Language: Body Signals Interpreting ears: Neutral When the ears are held loosely upward, opening facing forward or outward.
Horse Body Language: Body Signals Interpreting ears: Pricked Ears held stiff with openings pointed directly forward means the horse is alert.
Horse Body Language: Body Signals Interpreting ears: Airplane ears The ears flop out laterally with openings facing down, usually meaning the horse is tired or depressed.
Horse Body Language: Body Signals Interpreting ears: Drooped ears Hang down loosely to the side, usually meaning tiredness or pain.
Horse Body Language: Body Signals Interpreting ears: Ears angled backward with openings directly back towards the rider. usually means attentiveness to the rider or listening to commands.
Horse Body Language: Body Signals Interpreting ears: ears pinned flat against the neck This means watch out! The horse is angry and aggressive.
Interpreting vocalizations in the horse When a horse squeals or screams, this usually denotes: a threat by the stallion or mare
Interpreting vocalizations in the horse Nickers are low-pitched and quiet. A stallion will nicker when ___. A mare and foal nicker to each other. Domestic horses nicker for ___. courting a mare. food.
Interpreting vocalizations in the horse Neighs or whinnies, the most familiar, are high pitched, drawn out sounds that can carry over distances. To locate a herd mate
Interpreting vocalizations in the horse Blowing: A strong rapid expulsion of air resulting in a high pitched "whooshing" sound, is a sign of alarm used to warn others
Interpreting vocalizations in the horse Snorting is a more passive, shorter lower pitched version of blowing and is usually just a result of objects entering the nasal passage
Interpreting vocalizations in the horse What are some signs of friendship in horses? Mares and foals nudging or nuzzling each other during nursing or to comfort. Mutual grooming. Two horses nibbling each other.
Created by: Raevyn1