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Pharmacology

Definitions

TermDefinition
Adverse Drug Event Harm to a patient caused by a therapeutic or preventive intervention.
Adverse Drug Reaction An undesirable response to a drug by a patient. May vary from mild to fatal.
Agonist A drug that brings about a specific action by binding with the appropriate receptor.
Antagonist A drug that inhibits a specific action by binding with a particular receptor.
Compounding Any manipulation (diluting, combining) performed to produce dosage form drugs, other than the manipulations described in the directions for use on the labeling of an approved drug product.
Drug A substance used to diagnose, prevent or treat disease.
Efficacy The extent to which a drug causes the intended effects in a patient.
Extralabel Use The use of a drug that is not specifically listed on the US FDA approved label.
Half-life The amount of time (usually expressed in hours) that it takes for the quantity of drug in the body to be reduced by 50%.
Manufacturing The bulk production of drugs for resale outside the veterinarian-client-patient relationship.
Metabolism (biotransformation) The biochemical process that alters a drug from an active form to a form that is inactive or that can be eliminated from the body.
Parenteral The route of administration of injectable drugs.
Partition coefficient The ratio of the solubility of substances (gas anesthetics, for example) between two states in which they may be found (ex. blood & gas, gas & rubber goods).
Prescription (legend) drug A drug that is limited to use under the supervision of a veterinarian because of potential danger, difficulty of administration, or other considerations. Required: "Caution: Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed vet"
Regimen A program for administration of a drug that includes the route, the dose (how much), the frequency (how often) and the duration (for how long) of administration.
Residue An amount of drug still present in animal tissue or products (meat, milk, eggs) at a particular point (slaughter or collection).
Veterinarian-client-patient relationship The set of circumstances that must exist between the veterinarian, client & patient before the dispensing of prescription drugs is appropriate.
Withdrawal Time The length of time it takes for a drug to be eliminated from animal tissue or products after it is no longer used.
Cerumen a waxy secretion of the glands of the external ear canal.
Counterirritant An agent that produces superficial irritation that is intended to relieve some other irritation.
Cream a semi-solid preparation of oil, water & a medicinal agent.
Elixir a hydro-alcoholic liquid that contains sweeteners, flavoring and a medicinal agent.
Emulsion A medicinal agent that consists of oily substances dispersed in an aqueous medium with an additive to stabilize the dispersion.
Liniment A medicine in an oily, soapy, or alcoholic vehicle to be rubbed on the skin to relieve pain or to act as a counterirritant.
Ointment A semisolid preparation that contains medicinal agents for application to the skin or eyes.
Parenteral administration by a route other than the alimentary canal (ex. IM, SC, IV).
Speculum An instrument for dilating a body orifice or cavity to allow visual inspection.
Suspension A preparation of solid particles dispersed in a liquid but not dissolved in it.
Dosage rate The determination of the amount of dose to be administered (ex. 10 mg/kg).
dose the amount of drug to be administered to a patient (ex. 100 mg).
Equivalent weight One gram molecular weight (from the periodic chart) divided by the total positive valence of the material.
Milliequivalent a term used to express the concentration of electrolytes in a solution; 1/1000 of an equivalent weight.
Percent concentration An expression of the strength of a substance based on the ratio of parts per hundred (ex. 25%).
Ratio concentration An expression of the strength of a substance based on the ratio of its parts (ex. 1:32).
Solution A mixture of two substances not chemically combined with each other.
Stock solution A concentrated solution that will be diluted to a weaker solution for use.
acetylcholine a neurotransmitter that allows a nerve impulse to cross the synaptic junction (gap) between two nerve fibers or between a nerve fiber and an organ (ex. muscle, gland).
acetylcholinesterase an enzyme that brings about the breakdown of acetylcholine in the synaptic gap.
Adrenergic a term used to describe an action or receptor that is activated by epinephrine or norepinephrine.
Analgesia The absence of the sensation of pain.
Anesthesia The loss of all sensation. May be described as local (affecting a small area), regional or surgical (accompanied by unconsciousness).
Autonomic nervous system That portion of the nervous system that controls involuntary activities.
Catalepsy a state of involuntary muscle rigidity that is accompanied by immobility, amnesia, and variable amounts of analgesia. Some reflexes may be preserved.
Catecholamine The class of neurotransmitters that includes dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. When given therapeutically, they mimic the effects of stimulating the sympathetic nervous system.
Cholinergic Activated or transmitted through acetylcholine; also called parasympathomimetic. Cholinergic drugs increase the activity of the GI tract.
Effector A gland, organ or tissue that responds to nerve stimulation with a specific action.
Ganglionic synapse The site of the synapse between neuron one and neuron two of the autonomic nervous system.
Muscarinic receptors receptors activated by acetylcholine and muscarine that are found in glands, the heart & smooth muscle.
Muscarinic effects An acronym for remembering muscarinic effects is SLUD: salivation, lacrimation, urination, defecation.
Nicotinic receptors receptors activated by acetylcholine and nicotine found at the neuromuscular junction of the skeletal muscle and at the ganglionic synapses.
Parasympathetic nervous system That portion of the ANS that arises from the craniosacral portion of the spinal cord, is mediated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and is concerned primarily with conserving and restoring a steady state in the body.
Parasympathomimetic a drug that mimics the effects of stimulating the parasympathetic nervous system.
Sympathetic nervous system That portion of the ANS that arises from the thoracolumbar spinal cord, is mediated by catecholamines, and is concerned with the fight-or-flight response.
sympathomimetic a drug that mimics the effects of stimulating the sympathetic nervous system.
aerosolization the conversion of a liquid into a fine mist or colloidal suspension in air.
antitussive a drug that inhibits or suppresses the cough reflex.
bronchoconstriction narrowing of the bronchi and bronchioles, which results in increased airway resistance and decreased airflow.
bronchodilation widening lumen of bronchi and bronchioles, which results from relaxation of smooth muscle in the walls of the bronchi and bronchioles. Airway resistance is decreased, and airflow is increased.
Decongestant a substance that reduces swelling of mucous membranes.
Expectorant a drug that enhances the expulsion of secretions from the respiratory tract.
Humidification addition of moisture to the air
IgA Immunoglobulin A; a class of antibody that is produced on mucous membrane surfaces, such as those of the respiratory tract.
Inspissated Thickened or dried out.
Mucolytic having the ability to break down mucus.
Nebulization the process of converting liquid medications into a spray that can be carried into the respiratory system by inhaled air.
Nonproductive cough a cough that does not result in coughing up mucus, secretions, or debris (aka dry cough)
Productive cough a cough that results in the coughing up of mucus, secretions or debris.
Reverse sneeze Aspiration reflex; short periods of noisy inspiratory effort in dogs
surfactant a mixture of phospholipids secreted by type II alveolar cells that reduce surface tension in pulmonary fluids.
Viscid Sticky.
Atony the absence or lace of normal tone or strength.
Detrusor the smooth muscle of the urinary bladder that is mainly responsible for emptying the bladder during urination.
detrusor areflexia the absence of detrusor contractions.
Erythropoiesis the formation of erythrocytes (RBCs)
Erythropoietin a glycoprotein hormone secreted mainly by the kidney; it acts on stem cells of the bone marrow to stimulate the production of red blood cells (erythrocytes).
Hematuria blood in the urine.
Hypertension persistently high blood pressure.
Hypertonus the state characterized by an increased tonicity or tension.
Hypokalemia abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood
Lower motor neurons peripheral neurons whose cell bodies lie in the central gray columns of the spinal cord & terminations lie in skeletal muscle. Lesions of lower motor neurons cause muscles to atrophy, resulting in weak reflexes and flaccid paralysis.
Nephrology the study of the urinary (renal) system.
Nephron the basic functional unit of the kidney
polydipsia Excessive thirst manifested by increased water consumption.
Polyuria excessive urination.
Retroperitoneal located behind the peritoneum.
Upper motor neurons neurons in the cerebral cortex that conduct impulses from the motor cortex to the motor nuclei of the cerebral nerves or to the ventral gray columns of the spinal column. Lesions interrupt inhibitory effect on lower motor neurons, exaggerating reflexes
Uremia abnormally high concentrations of urea, creatinine, and other nitrogenous end products of protein and amino acids in the blood.
urinary incontinence lack of voluntary control over the normal excretion of urine.
urinary tract infection infection of the urinary tract; may be localized or may affect the entire urinary tract.
Created by: kidtaxi9