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Pharmacology

Chapter 10 Drugs Used in Ophthalmic and Otic Disorders

QuestionAnswer
Describe clinical indications for common ophthalmic agents. diagnostics, anesthetics during examinations, glaucoma, cataracts, corneal infections, endophthalmitis, uveal disease, allergies, inflammation, eye pain, conjuncitvitis, fungal infections, feline ocular herpes, KCS, dry eyes
Describe clinical indications for use of otic agents. cerumen/purulent exudate in ears, ear infections, acute/chronic otitis, otic candidiasis, otacariasis.
What is fluorescein sodium? a stain used on the cornea when a corneal ulcer is suspected. An ulcer can be observed w/ a cobalt blue filter & light source. Also used to diagnose patency of nasolacrimal outflow duct.
What is lissamine green used for? To diagnose corneal damage & quantify tear production.
What is phenol red thread used for? evaluate tear production.
What is Rose Bengal? used to detect viral keratitis in felines; corneal epithelium evaluation for keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). May be toxic, thoroughly flush from eye after exam to prevent irritation.
Describe ocular anesthetics. used during tonometry or to relieve corneal pain during examination.
What agents are used to decrease intra-ocular pressure (IOP)? sympathomimetics (alpha2-agonists); beta-adrenergic antagonists; prostaglandins; others.
Describe osmotic agents in regards to ophthalmic conditions. Osmotic agents increase osmotic pressure of plasma, which draws fluid out of the intraocular envrionment. Only for acute episodes of glaucoma; not for maintenance.
What are mydriatic cycloplegic vasoconstrictors? They cause the sphincter of the iris and ciliary muscles to relax. Used to induce mydriasis and cycloplegia for diagnostic purposes.
How do anti-inflammatory/analgesic ophthlamic agents help with eye conditions? Used to treat allergic conjunctivitis, seasonal allergies.
Describe the use of NSAIDs in ophthalmic conditions. help the cornea to heal, treat allergic conjunctivitis.
List reasons to use steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. treat diseases of the eye that may include conjunctiva, sclera, cornea & anterior chamber. Maximum results occur with frequency increases rather than increased concentrations of drug.
What are ophthalmic analgesics used for? Eye pain relief.
What is antimicrobial ophthalmic therapy? treatment and management of ocular disease (corneal infections, endophthalmitis, superficial corneal ulcers, keratitis, bacterial infections).
What are anticollagenase agents? Agents that stop melting effect of collagenases and proteases on the cornea.
What are uses of ocular lubricants/artificial tear products? dry eyes, relieve eye irritation, during anesthetics to keep eyes lubricated.
List some otic drugs. cerumenolytic agents--remove ear wax; cleaning/drying--prevent infections; antiseptic--heal ear infections; antibiotic potentiating agents--use in middle ear; corticosteroids-otitis; antibacterials; antifungals; antiparasitic
What are possible adverse reactions and contraindications of commonly used agents? eye irritation, miosis, hypersalivation, mydriasis, photophobia, allergies, accommodation paralysis, corneal epithelial damage. Some not for use in pregnant animals, NSAIDs not for corneal ulcers or hypersensitivity problems.
Created by: kidtaxi9