Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how


Chapter 4 Drugs Used in Nervous System Disorders

Describe the anatomy & physiology of the nervous system. CNS: brain & spinal cord; control center. Peripheral: nerve processes; afferent-to CNS; efferent-from CNS. Somatic (voluntary); CNS to skeletal muscle. ANS (involuntary)-CNS to cardiac muscle, glands, smooth muscle.
Describe the functions of the ANS. GI motility; rate & force of heartbeat; secretion by glands; sizes of pupils.
Explain the primary neurotransmitters of the ANS. Two neurons carry impulses to target structures; preganglionic (cell arises in CNS); ganglion is where the neurons meet. Postganglionic travels to target.
What is the difference between the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system? They are opposites and bring about a state of balance. Sympathetic is fight-or-flight; parasympathetic is energy-conserving.
Describe how drugs affect the ANS. They influence the chain of events involving neurotransmitters. Mimic neurotransmitters; interfere w/ neurotransmitter release; block attachment to receptors; interfere w/ breakdown or reuptake at synapse.
List the classes of ANS drugs. Cholinergic & cholinergic blocking affect the parasympathetic system; adrenergic & adrenergic blocking affect the sympathetic system.
Explain the classes of barbiturates. Long-acting (8-12 hours)--phenobarbital; prevent seizures. Class IV. Short-acting (45 min to 1.5 hrs)--pentobarbital sodium (IV); general anesthesia, prevent seizures, euthanasia. Class II.
What are the indications & precautions for using barbiturates? Easy & cheap to administer; sedative, anticonvulsant. Potential for complications because they depress cardiac & pulmonary systems. Non reversible, must be metabolized by liver. Tissue necrosis if outside vein.
What is dissociative anesthesia? List three agents. Causes catalepsy; increases muscle tone & pharyngeal/laryngeal reflexes maintained. For restraint, diagnostic & minor surgery. Ketamine HCL; Tiletamine HCl; phencyclidine.
List the opiate receptors and their functions. Mu--pain regulating areas of brain; analgesia, euphoria, respiratory depression, physical dependence, hypothermia. Kappa--cerebral cortex & spinal cord; analgesia, sedation, miosis. Sigma--struggling, whining, hallucinations, mydriasis. Delta--mod mu
List indications for use of narcotics. relief of colic pain in horses; restraint/capture of wild animals; antitussive for cough; diarrhea; c-section; in combo w/ tranquilizers or alone as anesthetics for surgical procedures.
List potential side effects of narcotic use or overdose. Panting, respiratory depression; defecation, flatulence, vomiting; sound sensitivity.
Describe how opioid antagonists exert their effects. They block the effect of opioids by binding with receptors, displacing narcotic molecules already present; prevent further narcotic binding at the sites.
List examples of opiod antagonists. Naloxone--few adverse effects; nalorphine--may cause respiratory depression/analgesic effects; butorphanol--rarely used as antagonist.
Define neuroleptanalgesic and give an example. Combination of an opioid and a tranquilizer; used as an anesthetic. Examples--acepromazine & morphine.
List examples of drugs used to control seizures. Diazepam (Valium)--by IV; 3-4 hr duration. Pentobarbital--by IV; 1-3 hr duration. Primidone--dogs & cats, similar to pentobarbital; use in cats controversial.
What is MAC? minimum alveolar concentration. Measure of potency; the amount that prevents gross purposeful movement in 50% of patients in response to a stimulus. Lower # is more potent; values vary between species.
What is vapor pressure? How volatile an agent is. Higher # = greater volatility & indicates the need for a precise vaporizer.
List commonly used inhalant anesthetics. isoflurane, sevoflurane, halothane, methoxyflurane, nitrous oxide (cannot produce general anesthesia by itself).
What are the primary uses of CNS stimulants? To treat respiratory depression or cardiac arrest.
List drugs used in behavioral pharmacotherapy. antianxiety medications--benzodiazepine; antidepressants--tricyclics, serotonin inhibitors, MAOIs; miscellaneous agents--gabapentin, clorazepate, methlyphenidate.
Describe the characteristics of a good euthanasia agent. Rapidly produce unconsciousness without struggling; cessation of all vital functions; rapid death.
Created by: kidtaxi9



Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards