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Pharmacology

Chapter 4 Drugs Used in Nervous System Disorders

QuestionAnswer
Describe the anatomy & physiology of the nervous system. CNS: brain & spinal cord; control center. Peripheral: nerve processes; afferent-to CNS; efferent-from CNS. Somatic (voluntary); CNS to skeletal muscle. ANS (involuntary)-CNS to cardiac muscle, glands, smooth muscle.
Describe the functions of the ANS. GI motility; rate & force of heartbeat; secretion by glands; sizes of pupils.
Explain the primary neurotransmitters of the ANS. Two neurons carry impulses to target structures; preganglionic (cell arises in CNS); ganglion is where the neurons meet. Postganglionic travels to target.
What is the difference between the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system? They are opposites and bring about a state of balance. Sympathetic is fight-or-flight; parasympathetic is energy-conserving.
Describe how drugs affect the ANS. They influence the chain of events involving neurotransmitters. Mimic neurotransmitters; interfere w/ neurotransmitter release; block attachment to receptors; interfere w/ breakdown or reuptake at synapse.
List the classes of ANS drugs. Cholinergic & cholinergic blocking affect the parasympathetic system; adrenergic & adrenergic blocking affect the sympathetic system.
Explain the classes of barbiturates. Long-acting (8-12 hours)--phenobarbital; prevent seizures. Class IV. Short-acting (45 min to 1.5 hrs)--pentobarbital sodium (IV); general anesthesia, prevent seizures, euthanasia. Class II.
What are the indications & precautions for using barbiturates? Easy & cheap to administer; sedative, anticonvulsant. Potential for complications because they depress cardiac & pulmonary systems. Non reversible, must be metabolized by liver. Tissue necrosis if outside vein.
What is dissociative anesthesia? List three agents. Causes catalepsy; increases muscle tone & pharyngeal/laryngeal reflexes maintained. For restraint, diagnostic & minor surgery. Ketamine HCL; Tiletamine HCl; phencyclidine.
List the opiate receptors and their functions. Mu--pain regulating areas of brain; analgesia, euphoria, respiratory depression, physical dependence, hypothermia. Kappa--cerebral cortex & spinal cord; analgesia, sedation, miosis. Sigma--struggling, whining, hallucinations, mydriasis. Delta--mod mu
List indications for use of narcotics. relief of colic pain in horses; restraint/capture of wild animals; antitussive for cough; diarrhea; c-section; in combo w/ tranquilizers or alone as anesthetics for surgical procedures.
List potential side effects of narcotic use or overdose. Panting, respiratory depression; defecation, flatulence, vomiting; sound sensitivity.
Describe how opioid antagonists exert their effects. They block the effect of opioids by binding with receptors, displacing narcotic molecules already present; prevent further narcotic binding at the sites.
List examples of opiod antagonists. Naloxone--few adverse effects; nalorphine--may cause respiratory depression/analgesic effects; butorphanol--rarely used as antagonist.
Define neuroleptanalgesic and give an example. Combination of an opioid and a tranquilizer; used as an anesthetic. Examples--acepromazine & morphine.
List examples of drugs used to control seizures. Diazepam (Valium)--by IV; 3-4 hr duration. Pentobarbital--by IV; 1-3 hr duration. Primidone--dogs & cats, similar to pentobarbital; use in cats controversial.
What is MAC? minimum alveolar concentration. Measure of potency; the amount that prevents gross purposeful movement in 50% of patients in response to a stimulus. Lower # is more potent; values vary between species.
What is vapor pressure? How volatile an agent is. Higher # = greater volatility & indicates the need for a precise vaporizer.
List commonly used inhalant anesthetics. isoflurane, sevoflurane, halothane, methoxyflurane, nitrous oxide (cannot produce general anesthesia by itself).
What are the primary uses of CNS stimulants? To treat respiratory depression or cardiac arrest.
List drugs used in behavioral pharmacotherapy. antianxiety medications--benzodiazepine; antidepressants--tricyclics, serotonin inhibitors, MAOIs; miscellaneous agents--gabapentin, clorazepate, methlyphenidate.
Describe the characteristics of a good euthanasia agent. Rapidly produce unconsciousness without struggling; cessation of all vital functions; rapid death.
Created by: kidtaxi9