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Anatomical Terms

PennFoster Intro to Vet Terminology Directional Terms, Body Systems, and Anatomy

TermDefinition
anterior toward the front of the animal
bilateral pertaining to both sides of the body
caudal toward the tail
cephalic toward the head
distal away from the point of reference
dorsal near or on the back of the body
lateral toward or on the side of the body
medial toward or at the middle of the body
posterior toward or at the rear of the body
proximal near the point of reference
ventral near or on the belly side of the body
articular pertaining to a joint
cardiovascular pertaining to the heart and blood vessels
circulatory pertaining to blood circulation
digestive regarding the process of converting food into chemical substances that can be used by the body
endocrine secreting internally; relating to endocrine glands
integumentary pertaining to the skin of the body
lymphatic pertaining to lymph or lymphatic vessels
muscular pertaining to the muscles
nervous pertaining to nerves
reproductive concerning to the production of offspring
respiratory pertaining to the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the body cells
skeletal pertaining to the bones of the body
urinary relating to the system of urine excertion
urogenital relating to organs of excretion and reproduction
vascular relating to vessels for passage of body fluids
abdominal pertaining to the abdomen
adipose relating to fat
adrenal relating to adrenal glands; near kidneys
alimentary pertaining to food or nutrition (alimentary canal)
anal pertaining to the region of the anus
aortic pertaining to the aorta (largest artery)
appendicular pertaining to the arms and/or legs
arterial relating to the arteries or the blood in them
articulation the joint or junction of two or more parts
aspiration the act of breathing; withdrawing fluid from the body
autonomic occurring involuntarily
axial trunk and skull (skeleton)
bowel division of the intestine
bronchial pertaining to the air tubes of the lungs
capillary smallest blood vessels
cardiac pertaining to the heart
cerebral pertaining to the brain
cervical pertaining to the neck or cervix
cilia small hairlike structures
cloaca urogenital passage of birds
coccygeal tail area
collateral secondary or accessory
colon part of the large intestine
copulatory relating to sexual intercourse
coronary regarding the heart
cranial regarding the skull
cutaneous relating to the skin
deciduous falling out at the end of a stage or season; first set of teeth
dental relating to teeth or dentistry
diaphragmatic regarding the diaphragm
diastolic regarding the dilation of the heart cavities
digital pertaining to the fingers or toes
duodenal pertaining to the duodenum
enzyme protein that causes biochemical reactions
epidermal relating to the outer layer of skin
epithelial pertaining to the outer protective tissue of the body
esophagus tubular food passage between the neck and stomach
excretory relating to the discharge of waste
exocrine external secretion of a gland
extremities terminal portions; arms, legs, feet, hands
fecal relating to feces
genetic relating to biological heredity
genital pertaining to the reproductive organs
hormonal relating to hormones
intestinal relating to the large or small intestine
larynx upper part of the trachea (windpipe)
lumbar pertaining to the lower back
metabolic relating to metabolism
mucous secreting mucus
neural pertaining to the nerves
olfactory relating to the sens of smell
ovarian relating to the ovary
parietal pertaining to the walls of a cavity
patellar relating to the patella (knee cap)
pectoral pertaining to the breast or chest
pelvic relating to or near the pelvis
phalanges bones or the digits (finger and toes)
pharynx upper part of the alimentary canal
prostate relating to the prostate gland
pulmonary pertaining to the lungs
rectal relating to the rectum
renal relating to the kidneys
sacral pertaining to the sacrum
salivary relating to the saliva or glands that secret it
sexual pertaining to the reproductive act or process
spermatic relating to the sperm
sphincter muscle controlling size of a body opening
spinal concerning the spine or spinal cord
systolic regarding the contraction of the heart
thoracic pertaining to the thorax
trachea tubular air passage in throat
urogenital pertaining to the urinary and genital organs
venous relating to the veins
vertebral relating to the vertebrae (backbone)
vestigial imperfectly developed or nonfunctional organ
visceral organs within the abdominal and thoracic cavities
Created by: Ygriega