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Foot and Mouth

Picornaviridae

QuestionAnswer
What is another name for this disease? Aphthous fever or Epidemic Aphthae
Who is and is NOT susceptible to this disease? All cloven-hoofed animals are susceptible. Swine were the #1 cause of the outbreak. HORSES ARE GENETICALY RESISTANT TO FMD
Does the virus have cross-protection amongst it's serotypes? How long can the virus survive in the stall? Stacks of Hay? Muscle of a carcass? NO cross-protection. 14 days in the stall. 20 weeks on stacks of hay. Virus inactivated within 48 hours of slaughter but survives much longer in BONE MARROW, VISCERA, and BLOOD CLOTS
What pH is this virus stable at? What four disinfectants can kill the virus then? 6-9. Sodium hydroxide, Sodium carbonate (soda ash), Citric acid, and Acetic acid
What is the main way this virus is transmitted? What are other ways that have been documented? INHALATION. DIrect contact with meat, milk, or semen. Garbage with uncooked scraps. ASYMPTOMATIC CARRIERS or ANIMALS INCUBATING the virus can carry it for long distances. Birds and rodents via mechanical spread
How long does it take to start shedding the virus? Virus shedding starts 24 hours PRIOR to clinical signs!
Where does the virus replicate before it's initial viremia in the body? Pharynx then it moves to epithelial cells of the mucosa and skin->lesions
What is the most common cuase of fatal FMD in young animals? TIGER HEART: myocardical leions that are small streaks of irregular size and shape in the myocardium giving it a striped appearance
What are the timelines for carriers? Who is NOT a carrier? Virus can persisten in the pharynx for up to 2 years in cattle and 6 months in sheep. PIGS HAVE no CARRIER STATUS
Who shows the most severe clinical signs? Who is subclinical? Cattle and swine are the worst. Sheep and goats are subclinical
Relationship between morbidity and mortality in cattle: HIGH to <5%
What signs are cattle showing within 24 hours? Where are vesicles present? What does the persistant fever causes? Salivate profusely and are lame. Tongue, lips, gums and palate, teats, rumen pillars, coronary band, and interdigital areas. Abortion in pregnant animals and MASTITIS with 25% drop in milk production
What leads to secondary bacT infections? Ulceration of the vesicles on the oral cavity and hooves
How are pigs affected? How is it spread in piggeries? Fever and lameness due to ulcerations and blisters on their feet. Aerosols (urine smells) have HIGH levels of the virus
What type of immunity do animals have that recover from this disease? NO LIFELONG. Immunity is TYPE-SPECIFIC which means that once recovered, they can sucumb to any of the other serotypes!
What control measures can be taken in endemic countries? Vaccination and imposition of quarantine in an outbreak
What control measures can be taken in disease-free countries? NO VACCINATION. Quarantine and slaughter of infected animals, disposal of carcasses by deep burial or burning
Created by: lkollmeier