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Rabies

Lyssavirus of Rhabdoviridae

QuestionAnswer
What does rabies mean in Latin? Are Lyssaviruses usually cytopathic or non? RAGE. NON
Who is susceptible to this virus? ALL warm-blooded animals (except birds...body temps are TOO high)
What is the order of animals who are MOST susceptible to animals that are LEAST? Foxes, coyotes, jackals, wolves, rodents - Skunks, bats, raccoons, rabbits, cattles, families Felidae and Viverridae - Domestic animals
How many diffent serotypes have been identified? How many cause Classica rabies? 6 Strains of 1 genotype have been found in the US: what are they? 7 Genotypes. ONE Serotype. 2 skunk, artic and red fox, gray fox,dog/coyote, and raccoon strains
The virus is VERY liable when exposed to these two things: UV light and heat
What are the main ways rabies can be spread? Bite or scratch wound from an infected animal. Aerosol (if in a dark area). Corneal transplantation (in humans)
What animals accounts for most cases of CATTLE rabies and why? SKUNKS because they excrete an enormous amount of virus in their saliva for 4-18 days
What is the bat's ability to transmit the virus based on? What types of bats can infect others? Protracted clinical course rather than it's subclinical carrier state. Insectivorous bats, Vampire bats, and Fruit Eating bats
Explain the pathogenesis of Rabies. Infection in striated muscle->enough virions build up to move to MOTOR OR SENSORY nerve endings->shed viruses bind to ACETYL CHOLINE RECEPTORS->virus moves CENTRIPETALLY to the CNS via the axoplasm
What two places can the virus replicate in, in the CNS and what is the difference? LIMBIC SYSTEM-"furious form". NEOCORTEX-"Dumb" or "Paralytic" form
What happens after the virus replicates in the CNS? virus move CENTRIFUGALLY down peripheral nerves->to the SALIVARY GLANDS via cranial nerves->extensive replication = high concentrations in the saliva
What is significant about the pathology of brain tissue? minimal target damage but lethal neurologic dysfunction. NO FRANK CYTOPATHOLOGY AND LITTLE INFLAMMATORY CELL INFILTRATION
Is there a humoral or cell-mediated immune response detected? NO because little viral antigen is released to stimulate these responses. NEURONS DO NOT EXPRESS MHC CLASS I PROTEINS.
What 4 things is the IP influenced by? Dose, strain of virus, degree of innervation, and site of innoculation
How fast is intraaxonal movement? 10-100mm per day
What is the Prodromal period? period of virus shedding and change in temperament before obvious clinical disease is observed
What is the cause of death in this disease? RESPIRATORY FAILURE
What 3 animals exhibit fury? Dogs, Cats, and Horses
What is a good way to diagnose rabies? Negri bodies in the thalamus, hypothalamus, pons, cerebelar cortex, and dorsal horns of the spinal cord. NOT ALL VIRUS_POSITIVE BRAINS SHOW NEGRI BODIES (75%)
When can you use antemortem diagnosis? Only in Humans
How long does it take mice to develop encephalitis when inoculated with the virus? 14 days
How can you control rabies in (1)Rabies-free countries and in (2)Endemic countries? (1)Quarantine. (2)Vaccination
What is a quick way to diagnose rabies? Direct FAT of medulla, cerebellum, and hippocampus
What does HRIG stand for? HDCV? RVA? HRIG is what is injected into human post-exposure: Human Rabies Immune Globulin. Two Vaccines: Human Diploid Cell-Culture Vaccine and Rhesus Kidney Cell-Culture Adjuvanted Vaccine
Created by: lkollmeier