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Vet. Terminology

Veterinary Medical Terminology

TermDefinition
Angio Vessel
Arthro Joint
Audio Hearing
Auro Ear
Caud Tail
Cardio Heart
Carcin Cancer
Cholin Acetylcholine
Chole bile
Chondro Cartilage
Cranio Head
Crin Secrete
Crypt Hidden
Cyan Blue
Cysto Bladder
Cyte Cell
Dermato Skin
Dento Teeth
Encephalo Brain
Entero Intestine
Erythro Red
Gastro Stomach
Geno To produce
Glu and Gly Glucose (sugar)
Hemo and Hemato Blood
Hepato Liver
Histo Tissue
Homeo Sameness
Hydro Water
Hystero Uterus
Iatro Physician
iatro-genic relating to illness caused by medical examination or treatment
iatro-culture The culture of medical professionals.
histo-logist a professional who studies the microscopic structure of tissue
histo-lysis the decay and dissolution of organic tissues or of blood
Irido Iris
irido-tomy Incision of the iris
Karyo Nucleu
Karyo-cyte Any cell that possesses a nucleus
Kine To move
Lacto Milk
Latero Side
Lith Stone
Medio Middle
Melano Black
Morph Form, shape, structure
Myo Muscle
Myelo Marrow
myelo-fibrosis bone marrow disorder
myelo-malacia spinal bleeding
Necro Death
Nephro Kidney
Ophthalmo Eye
Oro Mouth
Orchio Testicle
Os, Osseo, Osteo Bone
Oto Ear
Parturio Birth
Parturiti-on the action of giving birth to young
Patho Disease
Pharm Drug
Phil To love, to attact
hydro-phil-ic having a tendency to mix with, dissolve in, or be wetted by water.
Physio Nature
Plantar Sole (hindfoot)
Pnea Breathing
A-pnea temporary cessation of breathing, especially during sleep
Pulmono Lung
Reno Kidney
Retro Backward
Soma Body
Sirat Breathing
Stalsis Contraction
Peri-stalsis the involuntary constriction and relaxation of the muscles of the intestine or another canal, creating wave-like movements that push the contents of the canal forward.
Stasis To stop
Terato Monster
Thora Chest
Thrombo Clot
Toxo Poison
Tricho Hair
Tropo To turn; to influence
Ur Urine
Vaso Vessel
Veno Vein
Volvo To Twist
A- Absence
Ab- Away
Ad- Toward
Anis- Unequal
Ante- Before
Baso- Blue
Brachy- Short
Brady- Slow
Co- Together
Dys- Difficult
En- or Endo- Within
Epi- Upon
Ex- or Extra Out
Hyper- Excess, above normal
Hypo- Under
Inter- Between
Intra- Within
Ipsi- Same
Mal- Bad
Neo- New
Oligo- Small
Olig-uria the low output of urine,
Pan- All
Para- Near, Close to, in close proximity
Peri- Around, circle or closed curve, containing a thing
Poly- Many
Pre- or Pro- Before
Pseudo- False
Sym- or Syn- Together
Tachy- Fast
Telo- End
Median Plane Divides a body into equal right and left halves
Dorsal Plane Divides body into equal upper and lower halves
Saggital Plane Any plane to the right or left of the median plane
Transverse Plane Divides the body into equal front and back halves
Anterior Pertaining to front or before
Caudal Pertaining to the tail
Cranial Pertaining to the head
Dorsoventral Pertaining to the back and belly. Directionally, pertaining to coursing from the dorsum to the belly
Lateral Pertaining to the side
Medial Pertaining to the middle
Mediolateral Pertaining to the middle and side. Directionally, pertaining to coursing from the middle to the side.
Posterior Pertaining to the rear
Rostral Pertaining to the nose
Contralateral Pertaining to the opposite side. antonym: ipsilateral
Caudocranial Pertaining to the tail and head. Directionally, pertaining to coursing from the tail to the head.
Cranicaudal Pertaining to head and tail. Directionally, pertaining to coursing from the head to the tail.
Dorsal Pertaining to the back. Clinically, refers to the dorsum of the head, neck, trunk, and tail. Oriented the same as the surface of the back.
Palmar Pertaining to the palm. In veterinary medicine, refers to the sole of the forefoot of domestic animals.
Plantar Pertaining to the sole. In veterinary medicine, refers to the sole of the hindfeet of domestic animals
Ventral Pertaining to the belly. Clinically, refers to those surfaces of the head, neck, trunk, and tail oriented the same as the belly surface.
Epithelial Tissue tissues that line the outer surfaces of organs and blood vessels throughout the body, as well as the inner surfaces of cavities in many internal organs.
Connective Tissue A type of tissue found throughout the body. It connects structures together, providing support and protection.
Muscle Tissue Unique form of tissue that has the capacity to contract and relax which changes the overall length of the muscle from one moment to the next.
Neural Tissue Tissue found in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. It is composed of nerve cells (neurons).
Thoracic (Pleural) Cavity Body Cavity lined by pleura, contains heart and lungs.
Cranial Vault Body Cavity containing the brain.
Abdominal (Peritoneal) Cavity Body Cavity lined by peritoneum, contains many organs including liver, stomach, intestines, and urinary bladder.
Smooth muscle *cells lack striations (stripes) Type of muscle tissue usually associated with unconscious, involuntary muscle activity.
Cardiac Muscle Under unconscious, involuntary control. Found only in the heart. Its cells are striated and uniquely joined together end to end. (intercalated discs)
Skeletal Muscle Type of muscle composed of billions of myocytes, called muscle fibers. It is under voluntary control.
Fibrous Connective Tissue A very dense tissue composed of many tightly packed, thick collagen fibers and fine elastic fibers. (ligaments)
Elastic Connective Tissue tissue that contains numerous elastic fibers in addition to collagen fibers, which allows the tissue to return to its original length after stretching
Loose Connective Tissue A more delicate type of connective tissue. In general, it forms thin membranes throughout the body, like basement membrane that anchors epithelium to underlying tissue and holds organs in place.
Cartilage A somewhat rigid form of connective tissue that is unique in that it does not have a direct blood supply. Nutrients are received from other surrounding connective tissue with abundant blood supplies.
Bone The most dense/rigid type of connective tissue. Its hardness results from the presence of minerals and mineral salts in its matrix.
Simple Epithelial Tissue composed of single layers of cells
Stratified Epithelial Tissue arranged in layers
Pseudostratified Epithelial Tissue appear to be arrange in layers but are not actually
Squamous Epithelial Tissue composed of thin, flattened cells
Cuboidal Epithelial Tissue composed of cube-like cells
Columnar Epithelial Tissue those that consist of tall, elongated cells
Plasma Liquid component of blood: water, proteins, sugars, lipids, electrolytes
Plasma color- Hemolysis the process of destroying blood; clinically refers to lysis or breakage of erythrocytes.
Plasma color- Lipemia a condition of fat blood; clinically refers to an excess of fats or lipids in the blood, giving a milky appearance to the blood and plasma
Plasma color- Icteric Pertaining to icterus; jaundice. This is due to bilirunemia: a condition of bilirubin blood. Biliruben = bile pigment produced by the breakdown of hemoglobin in erythrocytes.
Erythrocytes (red cells) carry oxygen
Thrombocytes (platelets) initiate blood clotting. Originate from megakaryocytes.
Leukocytes (white cells) immune system. Granulocytes: neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils. Agranulocytes: monocytes and lymphocytes (create antibodies)
Hemostasis "To maintain blood" the process of blood stoppage. (the process of clotting) Platelets are involved in the first step in the clotting cascade.
Granulocytes Neutrophil- "neutral" granule staining, eosinophil- "red" granule staining, and Basophil- "blue" granule staining. *ALL granulocytes originate from the same pleuripotent stem cell in the bone marrow.
Agranulocytes Monocyte (macrophage), and lymphocyte
Diapedesis "walk across" cells migrate through blood vessel walls to provide phagocytic services out in the tissues of the body. (neutrophils and monocytes)
Monocyte The largest of the leukocytes. Its nucleus tends to be large and potentially multilobed, with a very loose, lightly basophilic staining chromatin pattern. The abundant cytoplasm is homogenous, and a light grayish color. (Agranulocyte, Macrophage)
Lymphocyte Get smaller with age. Older ones have very little cytoplasm. Their nuclear morphology is usually round to ovoid. (Agranulocyte)
Neutrophil (disease fighter) Nucleus tends to take many shapes but is usually very linear, curved, and somewhat lobated (polymorphonuclear). Mature cells get very condensed with dark purple staining characteristics. Important in ridding the body of foreign invaders. Potent enzymes.
Eosinophils They are polymorphonuclear with minimal phagocytic abilities. Their nucleus characteristically stain lighter than neutrophils. Important in allergic reactions and parasitic infections. Granules are important in allergic reactions.
Basophils Morphologically similar to neutrophils and eosinophils. Their basophilic staining granules are important in allergic reactions. They have fewer cytoplasmic granules than other granulocytes. Cytoplasm stains lightly basophilic.
Pericardium the membrane enclosing the heart, consisting of an outer fibrous layer and an inner double layer of serous membrane
Epicardium a serous membrane that forms the innermost layer of the pericardium and the outer surface of the heart
Myocardium the muscular tissue of the heart.
Endocardium the thin, smooth membrane which lines the inside of the chambers of the heart and forms the surface of the valves.
Septum is the middle portion of the cardiac wall that divides the heart into left and right sides. This division takes place over just 10 days in the 4th and 5th week of an embryo's development. Its job is to prevent mixing of oxygenated and unoxygenated blood.
Diastole the phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle relaxes and allows the chambers to fill with blood.
Systole the phase of the heartbeat when the heart muscle contracts and pumps blood from the chambers into the arteries
Created by: Raevyn1