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Retroviridae

Equine Infectious Anemia

QuestionAnswer
What is another name for this disease? Swamp Fever
There are two ways of transmitting the virus. What are they? What are they transferring? Mechanical (tabanids infective up to 30 minutes on mouthparts) and Vertical (via colostrum and milk). Blood cells from one infected horse to a clean one
Where does the virus initially replicate and what do ALL horses infected with this virus have? Macrophages and lymphocytes. Lifelong, cell associated viremia
Persistent Ag-Ab complexes result in damage to what? Causing what? How does this affect the CNS? Vascular endothelium. VASCULITIS. Ataxia, spinal leptomeningitis, and encephalomyelitis
This virus also causes anemia. How? Viral antigens attach to RBC and bind with FIA antibody causing erythrophagocytosis by mononuclear phagocytes. Type II hypersensitivity also occurs
Explain the acute phase of this disease. Jaundice, pettechial hemorrhages, sever anemia, blood stained feces. Mortalitiy rate of 80%!
Explain the subacute phase of this disease. moderate fever followed by RECOVERY
Explain he chronic phase of this disease. Persistent fever, cachexia, and ventral edema
What is a test you can use to diagnose this virus? What does it detect? How soon should a horse be tested if thought exposed? COGGINS TEST or the AGID (Agar Gel Immunodiffusion test). Detects p26 of antibodies to the virus. Retested at 4-6 weeks after possible exposure
How long are results valid for in a Coggins Test? 6 months to 1 year
Should you be worried about foals that nursed from infected dams? Yes and no. The foals may be temporarily positive but SHOULD BE negative by 6 months of age if not infected. RETEST!
What is good and bad about the ELISA with this virus? Good = detects antibodies sooner and at lower concentrations than AGID. Bad = false-positive are prominent
What is needed for horses to be allowed into or out of the US? a Negative Test certificate proving that they are not infected with EIA
Created by: lkollmeier