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Body Tissues + Fluid

Basic tissues types and body fluids

What is a tissue? (1 point) - Collection of cells and their products in which one type of cell predominates
What is a organ? (1 point) - Is a collection of tissues forming a structure within an animal that is adapted to preform a specific purpose (e.g. the heart)
What is a system in the body? (1 point) - Collection of organs and tissues that are related by function (e.g. cardiovascular system)
What is the general function of epithelial tissue? (1 point) - Protects the body
What is the general function of connective tissue? (1 point) - Binds tissues together
What is the general function of muscle tissue? (1 point) - Brings about movement
What is the general function of nervous tissue? (1 point) - Conveys nerve impulses from one area to another and coordinates a response
What are the 4 tissue types within the body? - Epithelial - Connective - Muscle - Nervous
What is the four function of the epithelial system? - Protection (covers all surfaces of the body) - Transport (located where there is rapid transport of substances - Lining/Absorption (lines internal cavities and tubes of they body) - Secretion (produce a variety of substances)
Describe simple cuboidal epithelium and state its function and where it can be found in the body ( 3 points) - One cell thick and cube shaped - Function = absorptive and secretary - Lines many glands and their ducts (e.g. the renal tubules)
Describe simple squamous epithelium and state its function and where it can be found in the body ( 3 points) - One cell thick flattened (is both thin and delicate) - Function = to be easily permeable for molecules to transfer through - Found where there is a covering surface (e.g. alveoli)
Describe simple columnar epithelium and state its function and where it can be found in the body ( 3 points) - One cell thick, tall and narrow - Function = either absorption or secretory - Lines organelles with an absorptive or secretory function (e.g small/large intestine or digestive gland)
What is ciliated epithelium? (2 points) - Small hair like projections (cilia) that waft mucus secreted by the goblet cells of simple epithelium along - Function = Designed to protect underlying tissues
Where can ciliated epithelium be found? (2 points) - Uterine tubes - Nose and respiratory tract
What is stratified epithelium? (3 points) - Consists of more than one layer of cells (usually multiple layers) - Thicker and tougher than other types of epithelium - Found in areas subject to wear, tear and friction (e.g. foot pads and elbows)
What is transitional epithelium and give an example as to where it can be found in the body (3 points) - Type of specialised stratified epithelium - Can change shape according to circumstances and how they appear under the microscope will depend on how distended the structure they are part of is - Found within structures in the body that are capable of changing shape (e.g. bladder, uterus, stomach and intestines)
What are glands made of? (1 point) - Modified epithelial cells that produce and secrete (release) a substance OR excrete (discharge) a substance (e.g. milk, sweat, cerumen, hormones or enzymes)
What are unicellular glands? (3 points) - Have INDIVIDUAL secretory cells which are interspersed throughout the tissue - Most common is the goblet cell which secretes clear sticky mucus directly onto the membrane surface - These secretory cells are found in the mucus membranes of the oral cavity, eye membranes, vagina and prepuce (common areas where you check an animal in a health check)
What are multicellular glands? (2 points) - Consists of MANY secretory cells which are folded to form a more complex gland - Vary in shape relating to the position and function of its body location
What are exocrine glands and give examples of where they can he found in the body - Produce PRODUCTS (e.g. milk, insulin, sweat) that are carried via DUCTS to the site where they are used (e.g. mammary glands, pancreas, sweat glands)
What are endocrine glands and give examples of where they can be found in the body - Produce HORMONES (e.g. TSH) that are carried to their site of action via the bloodstream (e.g TSH carried from the PITUITARY GLAND to the THYROID GLAND via the bloodstream to trigger the release of the hormone THYROXINE which is responsible for controlling metabolism of all cells in the body)
What is and example of an combined exocrine and endocrine gland? Pancreas = Insulin (hormone) and Digestive enzymes
What are the 7 types of connective tissue? - Blood - Hamopoetic - Areolar (loose) - Adipose (fatty) Fibrous (dense) - Cartilage - Bone
What is haemopetic tissue and were in the body can it be found? (3 points) - Jelly like substance - Produced by bone cells - Forms the bone marrow within long bones
What is areolar (loose connective) tissue and were in the body can it be found? (4 points) - Made of many cells (fibroblasts, fat cells, macrophages) - Consists of a loose irregular network of collagen and elastic fibres (collagen fibres are a structural protein) - Surrounded by capillaries which provide blood supply - Forms the subcutaneous layer of the skin (hypodermis), is located between the organs of the body, is found around blood vessels, nerves and between muscle bundles
What is adipose (fatty) tissue and were in the body can it be found? (4 points) - Similar to areolar tissue - Matrix contains mainly fat filled cells - Fat cells are an energy reserve and form an insulation under the skin - Forms a protective layer around some organs (e.g. kidneys)
What is fibrous (dense connective) tissue and were in the body can it be found? (5 points) - Can either be REGULAR or IRREGULAR - Name refers to the arrangement of the collagen and elastic fibres in the tissue - All connective tissue has collagen and elastic fibres - Dense REGULAR connective tissue (parallel arrangement) form both ligaments and tendons. It is resistant to tension whilst allowing some stretching - Dense IRREGULAR connective tissue forms joint capsules and sheaths of fascia that surround muscle tissue (covers liver and spleen and also forms the dermis of the skin)
What is cartilage and were in the body can it be found? (4 points) - Type of supporting connective tissue - Rigid but flexible and resilient (able to bear weight) - Made of chondrocytes and fibres in a gel like ground substance - NO blood supply - avascular (gets nutrition from membranes surrounding - the perichondrium)
What are the names of the three types of cartilage found in the body? - Hyaline - Elastic - Fibrocartilage
What is hyaline cartilage and where in the body is it found? (3 points) - Translucent blue/white appearance with randomly arranged collagen fibres (not easily seen under microscope) - Function = provides support - Found on articular surface of joints swell as the nose, larynx, trachea and bronchi (most common type of cartilage found in the body)
What is elastic cartilage and where in the body is it found? (3 points) - Consist of chondrocytes within a matrix with numerous elastic fibres - Function = flexibility and support - Found in both the external ear and epiglottis
What is fibrocartilage and where in the body is it found? (3 points) - Made of similar structure to elastic cartilage but has a much higher proportion of collagen fibres - Function = provides strength - Found in the invertabral discs of the spine and the menisci of the stifle joint
Describe the structure of bone (6 points) - Consists of an extracellular matrix of OSTEONECTIN and collagen fibres = OSTEOID - Calcium phosphate crystals deposited within the OSTEOID and causes the bone to CALCIFY - As calcification occurs OSTEOCYTES (bone cells) are trapped within LACUNAE (spaces) - Fine channels called HAVERSIAN CANALS run through the OSTEOID -Haversian canals carry blood vessels and nerves, each canna is surrounded by cylinders of matrix material called LAMELLAE - LAMELLAE + HARVERSIAN CANALS = HAVERSIAN SYSTEM
What is the periosteum and where can you find it? (2 points) - It is a fibrous membrane - Covers the outer surface of ALL types of bone
What is the composition of compact bone and where in the body can it be found? (3 points) - Solid and hard as HARVERSIAN SYSTEMS ARE densely packed TOGETHER - Function - protective - Found in ALL types of bones
What is the composition of spongy bone and where in the body can it be found? (3 points) - consists of an internal meshwork with interconnected spaces filled with red bone marrow - Function = makes bones lighter -Found at the end of long bones and in the core of both short, irregular and flat bones
What do our muscles do for us? Responsible for our coordinated movement
What are the three types of muscle found in the body? - Skeletal - Smooth -Cardiac
What do muscle fibres consist of? (8 points) - Bundles of MYOFIBRILS - MYOFIBRALS are made of ACTIN and MYOSIN (thin & thick filaments) - Striped appearance (due to its highly regular arrangement) - Each fibre has several nuclei (that lie on the outer surface of the cell) - Muscle fibres are grouped together in bundles called FASICLES, these are held together by connective tissue to form a large muscle -Surrounded by a MUSCLE SHEATH (continues with tendons that connect muscle to bone)
What is skeletal muscle? (3 points) - Attached to the skeleton - Brings about movement - Under voluntary control
What is smooth muscle? (6 points) - Involuntary control - Controlled by autonomic nervous system - Cells are long and spindle shaped -Surrounded by small amounts of connective tissue that bind the cells into sheets of layers - Nucleus of each cell lies in its centre - Found in the gut (peristalsis), uterus, bladder (anywhere there is a function without conscious control)
What is cardiac muscle? (4 points) - Only found in the heart (myocardium) -Involuntary control - Muscle cells striated and centrical shaped which branch to create a network of fibres - Linked by intercalated discs which enable nerve impulses to be conveyed across myocardium quickly
What is intracellular fluid? (3 points) - Found inside the cells of the body - 40% of bodyweight - Fluid found in blood cells and other types of cells
What is extracellular fluid? (3 points) - Fluid outside the cells - 20% of bodyweight - Includes lymph, plasma, cerebral-spinal fluid
What is transcellular fluid? (2 points) - Type of extracellular fluid - Fluid that surrounds al other body cells (interstitial fluid)
What is the normal pH of the body? 7..35 (neutral)
What is acidosis? Decrease in blood pH
What is alkalosis? Increase in blood pH
What might lead to increased CO2 in the blood? Hypoventilation (less breathing) = build up of CO2 = respiratory acidosis
What might lead to a decrease of CO2 in the blood? Hyperventilation (more breathing) = allot of CO2 lost = respiratory alkalosis
Created by: x_catriona



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