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Integument System

The outer covering of the animal and comprises of the skin, fur and claws

Describe the epidermis layer of the skin (7 points) - The superficial (outer) layer - Made up of stratified (layered) squamous (multiple) epithelium - This makes it tough and protective - This layer is avascular, and instead gets its supply of nutrients from blood vessels within the dermis - Contains NO nerves - Consists of layers that are continually renewed - Last cells are seen as scurf of the top of the animal’s coat
Describe the dermis layer of the skin (6 points) - The underlying layer of the skin - Epidermis sits on top - Consists of dense (tightly packed) connective tissue, with irregularly arranged elastic fibres and collagen - This layer is vascular with a good blood supply - Well supplied with nerves - Glands and hair follicles of the skin are found within the dermis
What are the 5 layers of the epidermis - in order from surface? 1. Stratum corneum 2. Stratum lucidum 3. Stratum granulosum 4. Stratum spinosum 5. Stratum basale
Describe the stratum corneum layer of the epidermis? (2 points) - This is the outermost layer of the epidermis - It is composed of many layers of dead cells called Corneocytes
What is a corneocyte? (2 points) - Consist of keratin and provide a waterproof covering to the skin - The outer corneocytes are continuously sloughed and replaced by cells from the lower layers
Describe the stratum lucidum layer of the epidermis? (4 points) - This is Latin for ‘clear layer’ - The cells lose their nuclei and become clearer - This layer is ONLY found on the nose and footpads - It consists of dead cells that contain lipid, which give the nose and foot pads a glassy appearance
Describe the stratum granules layer of the epidermis? (3 points) - In this layer cells begin to die and are filled with keratin which gives them their granular appearance under the microscope - The cells are flattened and keratinisation begins in this layer (infiltration of the cells by keratin) - Keratin makes the cells more hard wearing
Describe the stratum basal layer of the epidermis? (3 points) - This is the lowest layer of the epidermis and consists of a single layer of cells. - New cells are formed by mitotic division, as new cells are produced they push previously produced cells up to the next layer - Melanocytes, which give the skin its pigment and are present in this layer
Describe the stratum spinoism layer of the epidermis? (2 points) - The cells in this layer have a spiky appearance and are still alive and nucleated. - This layer is 1-2 cells thick in areas where hair is present and up to 20 cells thick in areas where hair is absent
Describe the hypodermic layer (3 points) - The hypodermis (or subcutis) is not actually part of the skin but is a layer of loose connective tissue and fat lying beneath the dermis - It contains elastic fibres which give the skin its flexibility (This is evident when we lift the fold of skin on the back of dog or cats neck to give injections - It is into the hypodermis into which subcutaneous injections are given
Why is hair important to animals? (2 points) - Maintaining body temperature by providing both insulation and if dark in colour can also absorb light - Protection as provides a barrier to injury and also in some species camoflauge
Describe the structure of a hair? (5 points) - Hair is a keratinised structure which grows from follicles found in the dermis - The hair follicle originates from a peg of epidermal cells that grows down into the underlying dermis, where it forms a hair cone over a piece of dermis called the dermal pailla -The dermal papilla provides the blood and nerve supply for the growing hair - The visible part of the hair, above the skin’s surface, is called the hair shaft - The part of the hair that lies within the follicle is called the hair root
What are the three phases of hair growth? 1. Anagen – rapid growth phase 2. Catagen – transitional phase 3. Telogen – resting phase when no growth takes place
What are arrestor pills muscles and how do they benefit the animal? ( 3 points) - When frightened or cold animals can make their hair stand up due to the presence of a small, smooth muscle called the arrector pili muscle - When the muscle contracts it pulls the hair to an erect position - Hair that stands erect can better trap insulating layers of air than nonerect hair
What are the three hair types? 1. Guard hairs (primary) 2. Wool hairs (secondary) 3. Tactile hairs
What is the purpose of guard hairs? (1 point) Guard hairs give the coat its waterproof quality, water will ‘run off’ the coat unless the animal is submerged in water for a long time.
What is the purpose of wool hairs? 1 (point) These form the innermost, soft undercoat and are more numerous than guard hairs
What is the purpose of tactile hairs and where are they found on the body? (2 points) - Include sinus hairs which are known as whiskers or vibrissae. They are very thick, stiff and have a profuse blood supply - Found on the muzzle, eyelids, lips and face and also on the palmar aspect of the carpus in cats - Act as SLOW- adapting mechoreceptors
What are mechanoreceptors? (1 point) A sense organ that responds to mechanical stimuli
What are tylotrich hairs and where are they found on the body? (3 points) - Found scattered throughout the skin amongst primary and secondary hairs - They are strong and thick and present as a single hair within a large follicle - They act as FAST-acting mechanorecpetors
What are compound hair follicles? (3 points) - Animals with fur often have compound follicles in which multiple hair strands emerge from a single pore, although each strand has its own follicle and bulb - As many as 15 hairs may be associated with one pore - In compound follicles a single, long primary hair, also known as a guard hair, is usually surrounded by shorter secondary hairs, also called wool hairs
What are the 3 functions of sebum? - Forms a waterproof layer on the skin and coat, giving the coat a ‘sheen’ appearance and making the skin more supple - Antiseptic quality which controls bacterial growth on the skin surface - Plays an important role in the production of vitamin D
Where does sebum come from in the body? (1 point) Sebaceous glands (have a single duct which empties into a hair follicle)
What is the description and function of the tail gland (2 points) - Found on the dorsal surface of the base of the tail - Function is individual recognition and identification between individuals
What is the description and function of the circumanual gland (3 points) - Located on the entire circumference of the anus - Drain into specialised sweat glands - Function is that their secretion is to contribute to the overall smell of the dog (again identification purposes)
What is the description and function of the anal glands (3 points) - Lie within the walls of the paired spherical anal sacs on either side just below the anus - Produce a foul-smelling secretion that is expressed during defecation - This coating on the faeces and has the function of serving as a territorial marker
What is the description and function of the circumoral glands (3 points) - Found on the lips of cats ONLY - The secretion has the function of territorial marking - This can be observed when a cat rubs its face on objects such as furniture or owner’s legs
What is the description and function of the cerminous glands (2 points) - Found on the external ear canal - Has the function of secreting cerumen (ear wax)
What is the description and function of the meibomian / tarsal glands (2 points) - Open onto the eyelids - Produce the fatty component of the tear film that has the function of moistening the eye
What are the two types of sweat glands and where do they empty? - Apocrine - empty into hair follicles - Eccrine - empty onto the surface of the skin(in dogs only found in the foot pads and nasal planum
What is the function of sweat glands? (1point) Produce a watery, transparent liquid that helps to cool the body by evaporation
What are mammary glands? (2 points) - Greatly modified, enlarged sweat glands - Secrete milk for nourishment of the young
What is the function of the foot pads? (2 points) - Protect the underlying joints -Act as shock absorbers as the animal walks or runs
What is the foot pad also referred to as? Digital cushion
Describe the structure of claws (2 points) - made from modified keratinised epidermis - Form the horny outer covering of the distal (third) phalanx of each digit
How do cats retract their claws? (2 points) - Retracted by elastic ligaments that run from the 2nd and 3rd phalanx - Contraction of the digital flexor muscle overcomes the pull of these ligaments and the claws are extended
What is the quick of a nail? (1 point) - Avascular dermis which lies at the base of the claw (bleeds if you cut the claws too short)
Created by: x_catriona



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