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Structure, Physiology and Division

What are the four functions of a cell membrane? (4 points) - Separating the cell from its environment - Covers the surface of a cell - Controls the passage of substances in and out of the cell – Selectively permeable (only allows some substances to pass through - Assists with cell recognition using carbohydrates
What three components make up the cell membrane structure? (3 points) - Phospholipid bilayer – Double layer of phospholipid (fat) molecules with transport protein molecules embedded within it. - Carbohydrates are found on the surface of the cell membrane – help cell to recognise other cells + help in formation of tissues - Other membrane proteins act as enzymes, receptor molecules or electron transporters
What are the three functions of the cytoplasm? (3 points) - Suspends the nucleus and organelles within the cell supporting them - Fluid that fills interior of the cell - Contains the cell’s glucose, proteins and ions
What are the two functions of the nucleus? (2 points) - Contains genetic material of the cell (within chromosomes) (The chromosomes carry DNA – Deoxyribonucleic acid –carry the information for protein synthesis – Set of instructions) - Controls the activity of the cell
What is the function of the nucleolus? (1 point) - Nucleus have several nucleoli where ribosomes are manufactured
What is the sole function of the mitochondria? (1 point) - Site of cellular respiration (Site where energy extracted from food is stored as ATP - Adenosine Triphosphate)
Describe the structure of the mitochondria (4 points) - Rod shaped - Double membrane structure - Smooth outer membrane - Inner membrane folds in to form large surface area
What is the function of ribosomes within a cell? (1 point) - Site of protein synthesis within the cell (Joins amino acids together to make a polypeptide chains)
Describe the structure of the endoplasmic reticulum? What are the two types and what is the structural difference between them? (3 points) - Network of membrane lined interconnected tubes and cavities in cytoplasm - Ribosomes – Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum - Without Ribosomes – Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
What is the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum? (1 point) - Transports proteins synthesised by ribosomes
What is the function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum? (1 point) - Smooth ER Synthesis and transport of lipids and steroids
Describe the structure of the Golgi apparatus (1 point) - Stack of flattened sacs in cytoplasm
What is the two function of the Golgi apparatus? (2 points) - Modification of certain proteins produced by the cell (adds carbohydrates) - Makes lysosomes
What is the function of lysosomes (3 points) - Store digestive enzymes that break down food into chemical compounds - Destroy cell organelles and the cell itself - Digest materials taken in via phagocytosis or endocytosis
Describe the structure of lysosomes and where are they found? (2 points) - Small round membrane bound sacs - Found in ALL cells
What is the function of the centrosome? (1 point) - Involved in cell division (mitosis)
Describe the structure of the centrosome (2 points) - Centrosome contains a pair of rod like structures called centrioles - Lie at right angles to each other
What are the cilia and flagella of the cell? (2 points) - Cilia and flagella are extensions of the plasma membrane seen on some cells of the body - Used to move the cell
What is the difference between the cilia and flagella? (2 points) - Cilia found in large numbers on outside of cell creating a wave like motion - Flagella are usually single and longer, moving the cell by undulating movements
Which type of cell division is seen in somatic (body) cells? (1 point) - Mitosis (the production of two identical daughter cells, each of which are identical to the parent cell and containing a diploid number of chromosomes)
Which type of cell division is seen in germ (sex) cells? (1 point) - Meiosis -the production of four identical daughter cells, each which is non-identical to the parent cell and containing a haploid number of chromosomes)
What are the 4 active phases of mitosis called (in their correct order)? 1. Prophase 2. Metaphase 3. Anaphase 4. Telophase
What occurs during interphase? (2 points) - Interphase is the resting phase before prophase begins where the new daughter cells grow and prepare for the next division - The DNA replicates in preparation for the next division
What occurs during prophase? (3 points) - Nuclear membrane breaks down, chromasomes contract and become shorter and fatter and more distinct - Each chromasome replicates forming two chromatids joined at the centromere - Centrioles are now at opposite ends of the cell and spindle fibres start to form
What occurs during metaphase? (1 point) - The chromosomes attach to the spindle fibres and as they contract it moves the chromatids towards the opposite poles of the cell
What occurs during anaphase (1 point) - The stage of mitosis where the chromasomes attach to the spindle fibres and as they contract the chromatids move towards the opposite poles of the cell
What occurs during telophase? (1 point) - The spindle fibres break down, the cell constricts across the middle until it divides in two (resulting in two new daughter cells)
What is ‘Crossing over’ and which stage of meiosis does it take place (2 points) - This occurs during the assembly at the equator where the chromosome ends may become entangled and pieces of one chromosome may attach to the other - This occurs in the Prophase stage and may influence the characteristics of the offspring
How does meiosis differ from mitosis? (3 points) - Meiosis results in the ova or sperm containing half of the normal number of chromosomes (haploid number) - Meiosis also goes through the four active stages twice - Crossing over occurs during prophase and it takes longer than in mitosis
At what stage during meiosis does the fibrous spindle start to form how is this different from mitosis? (2 points) - The spindle fibres start to form at Metaphase1 - This is different to mitosis as in meiosis the chromatids are arranged in pairs but in mitosis, they are single when aligned at the equator
What occurs during Anaphase 1? (1point) - The pairs separate and the chromatids migrate along the spindle fibres towards the poles of the cell
The first meiotic division takes place during which stage of meiosis? (1 point) The first meiotic division tales place is at Telephase1, this involving the cytoplasm beginning to divide but the nuclear membrane not reforming
What is osmosis? (2 points) - The movement of water, through a semi permeable membrane from a fluid of low concentration to one of a higher concentration - Continues until the two concentrations are equal.
What is diffusion? (4 points) - Diffusion is the term used to describe molecules moving down a concentration gradient - The movement is from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration and will continue until an equilibrium is reached - Diffusion takes place where there is no barrier to the free movement of molecules - It can only however take place if the molecules are small enough to pass through the cell membrane
Created by: x_catriona



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