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Veterinary A & P

Special Senses

sensory receptors structure that reacts to a physical stimulus in the environment (internal or external). A sensory nerve ending that receives information and conducts a process of generating nerve impulses to be transmitted to the brain for interpretation and perception
Sensory receptors are sensitive to: Mechanical stimuli (touch, hearing, balance), Thermal stimuli (hot and cold), electromagnetic stimuli (vision), and chemical stimuli (taste and smell)
general senses Visceral sensations, touch, temperature, pain, and proprioception
visceral sensations sensations arising from the viscera, in addition to pain, include organ filling, bloating and distension, dyspnea, and nausea, whereas non-visceral afferent activity gives rise to sensations such as touch, pinch, heat, cutting, crush, and vibration.
pleura a serous membrane which folds back onto itself to form a two-layered membranous pleural sac. The outer pleura (parietal pleura) is attached to the chest wall, but is separated from it by the endothoracic fascia.
peritoneum the serous membrane lining the cavity of the abdomen and covering the abdominal organs.
Touch and pressure Touch: tactile sense; sensation of something being in contact with the surface of the body. Pressure: something pressing on the body surface.
General senses visceral: hunger, thirst, holloworgan fullness-chemical, mechanical, touch: touch, pressure-mechanical, temperature: heat, cold-thermal, pain: intense stimuli of any type-mechanical, chemical, thermal, proprioception: body position and movement-mechanical
Special senses Taste: tastes-chemical, Smell: odors-chemical, Hearing: sounds-mechanical, Equilibrium: balance and head position-mechanical, Vision: light-electromagnetic
Temperature sense monitoring half of the body's temperature control system. Superficial: receptors are located in the skin and detect upward or downward changes in skin temperature & Central: receptors track core (interior temperature)-in the hypothalamus.
Pain nociceptors: the most common and widely distributed sensory receptors inside and on the surface of the body. Experiencing pain: nociception
Nociception Four steps: transduction, transmission, modulation, and perception
transduction conversion of the painful stimulus to a nerve impulse which occurs at the sensory nerve ending. Can be inhibited by NSAID's, opioids and local anesthetics.
transmission from the site of transduction along the nociceptor fibers to the dorsal horn in the spinal cord; from the spinal cord to the brain stem; through connections between the thalamus, cortex and higher levels of the brain.
modulation (changing) of the sensory nerve impulses can occur in the spinal cord and this can significantly influence the information the brain receives. Chronic/Severe pain. These changes can amplify (make worse)or suppress (make less severe) sensory impulses.
perception dependent upon neural processing in the spinal cord and several brain regions. Pain becomes more than a pattern of nociceptive action potentials when they reach the brain. Conscious: cerebral cortex.
classifications of pain Nociceptive, Neuropathic, Inflammatory
Nociceptive Pain represents the normal response to noxious insult or injury of tissues such as skin, muscles, visceral organs, joints, tendons, or bones.
Neuropathic Pain pain initiated or caused by a primary lesion or disease in the somatosensory nervous system.
Inflammatory Pain a result of activation and sensitization of the nociceptive pain pathway by a variety of mediators released at a site of tissue inflammation.
Pain Classifications superficial: affecting the skin and subcutaneous areas, deep: involving muscles and joints, visceral: relating to the internal organs, acute: sharp and intense, chronic: dull and aching
proprioception sense of body position and movement. At the heart of this sense are a variety of stretch receptors located in skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joint capsules.
esthesia capacity for sensation and feeling
Esthesiology Study of the sensory system
General Anesthesia anesthesia affecting the entire body and accompanied by loss of consciousness
Local Anesthesia loss of sensation in a limited and usually superficial area produced especially by an anesthetic affecting only a part of the body
Analgesia insensibility to pain without loss of consciousness
Wind-Up (spinal cord) Process of peripheral and central sensitization and refers to the neuroanatomic changes (plasticity) that result in heightened or exaggerated pain states. Additionally, these exaggerated pain states often do not respond to conventional analgesic therapy.
Special Senses taste, smell, hearing, vision, and equilibrium
Taste Gustatory sense: chemical sense with receptors located in the mouth in structures called taste buds.
papillae a small rounded protuberance on a part or organ of the body.
taste pores tiny openings on the surface of each taste bud that allow dissolved substances to enter the taste buds and contact the sensory receptor
Four Primary Taste Sensations Sweet, sour, salty, and bitter. Umami: a category of taste in food, corresponding to the flavor of glutamates, especially monosodium glutamate. Interaction with the sense of smell assists the ability to taste sensation.
Smell-Peemail messages Olfactory sense: Olfactory receptors are primarily located on the ethmoturbinates of the nasal cavity. Dietary fat content, amount of food per meal, and timing of meals have been demonstrated to impact olfaction in mice and dogs
Hearing Auditory sense: a mechanical sense that converts vibrations of air molecules into nerve impulses that are interpreted by the brain as sound.
Three sections of the ear External ear, Middle ear, Inner ear
External Ear acts as a funnel to collect sound wave vibrations and direct them to the eardrum.
Middle Ear amplifies and transmits the vibrations from the ear tympanic membrane to the inner ear
Inner Ear contains the actual sensory receptors that convert the mechanical vibrations to nerve impulses, along with receptors for the equilibrium sense.
External Ear Parts Pinna, external auditory canal, and the tympanic membrane
Pinna the external part of the ear in humans and other mammals; the auricle.
External Auditory Canal pathway running from the outer ear to the middle ear.
Tympanic Membrane a membrane forming part of the organ of hearing, which vibrates in response to sound waves. In humans and other higher vertebrates it forms the eardrum, between the outer and middle ear.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infections An illness caused by an acute infection. Involves the upper respiratory tract: nose, sinuses, pharynx, or larynx. Commonly includes nasal obstruction, sore throat, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, otitis media, and the common cold.
Middle Ear Parts Consists of the ossicles, three bones: the hammer (malleus), the anvil (incus) and the stirrup (stapes), the oval window, the round window, and the Eustachian tube.
Inner Ear Parts Called labyrinth of the ear, part of the ear that contains organs of the senses of hearing and equilibrium. The bony labyrinth, a cavity in the temporal bone, is divided into three sections: the vestibule, the semicircular canals, and the cochlea.
Inner Ear Parts 2 organ of Corti, cochlear duct, endolymph, perilymph, oval and round window, tectorial membrane.
organ of Corti Sensitive element in the inner ear and can be thought of as the body's microphone. It is situated on the basilar membrane in one of the three compartments of the Cochlea. It contains four rows of hair cells which protrude from its surface
Cochlea the spiral cavity of the inner ear containing the organ of Corti, which produces nerve impulses in response to sound vibrations.
Vestibule the central part of the bony labyrinth in the inner ear, and is situated medial to the tympanic cavity, behind the cochlea, and in front of the three semicircular canals.
Oval Window Membrane-covered opening that leads from the middle ear to the vestibule of the inner ear. Vibrations that contact the tympanic membrane travel through the three ossicles and into the inner ear.
Round Window One of the two openings from the middle ear into the inner ear. It is sealed by the secondary tympanic membrane (round window membrane), which vibrates with opposite phase to vibrations entering the inner ear through the oval window.
Semicircular Canals Three bony canals within the internal ear situated behind the vestibule and arranged in three mutually perpendicular planes. The semicircular canals of the bony labyrinth contain perilymphatic fluid and the membranous semicircular ducts
perilymphatic fluid Extracellular fluid located within the inner ear. It is found within the scala tympani and scala vestibuli of the cochlea. The ionic composition of perilymph is comparable to that of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid.
Equilibrium Along with hearing, the inner ear is responsible for encoding information about equilibrium (the sense of balance), which it does in the vestibule and semicircular canals, structures that are sometimes collectively referred to as the vestibular apparatus
Vestibule The portion of the inner ear that is located between the cochlea and the semicircular canals and is made up of: utricle and the saccule
Macula A patch of sensory epithelium inside the utricle and saccule. It consists of hair cells and supporting cells covered by gelatinous matrix that contains tiny crystals of calcium carbonate called otoliths.
Semicircular Canals three tiny, fluid-filled tubes in the inner ear that help maintain balance. When a head moves around, the liquid inside the semicircular canals sloshes around and moves the tiny hairs that line each canal.
Vision Qualities of an object (color, luminosity, shape, size) constituting its appearance are perceived through a process in which light rays entering the eye are transformed by the retina into electrical signals transmitted to the brain via the optic nerve
photoreceptors a receptor for light stimuli
retina Sensory membrane lining the eye. Several layers:one containing the rods and cones. Functions as immediate instrument of vision by receiving images formed by the lens, converting it into chemical & nervous signals: reach the brain from the optic nerve
Three Layers of the Eye Outer fibrous layer, the middle vascular layer, and the inner nervous layer
Fibrous Layer Cornea: the transparent part of the coat of the eyeball that covers the iris and pupil and admits light to the interior and the Sclera: the dense fibrous opaque white outer coat enclosing the eyeball except the part covered by the cornea
Limbus the marginal region of the cornea of the eye by which it is continuous with the sclera
Vascular Layer (Uvea) Parts include the Choroid, iris, and ciliary body
Choroid a vascular membrane containing large branched pigmented cells that lies between the retina and the sclera of the vertebrate eye
Tapetum lucidum (tapetum) a layer in the choroid chiefly of nocturnal mammals that reflects light causing the eyes to glow when light strikes them at night and that is made up of several layers of flattened cells covered by a zone of doubly refracting crystals
Pupil the contractile aperture in the iris of the eye
Iris the opaque contractile diaphragm perforated by the pupil and forming the colored portion of the eye
Ciliary body a vascular structure encircling the inner surface of the eye behind the iris that secretes the aqueous humor and contains the muscle which controls accommodation of the eye
Suspensory ligaments a ringlike fibrous membrane connecting the ciliary body and the lens of the eye and holding the lens in place
Nervous Layer Retina: inner area which lines the back of the eye. It contains the actual sensory receptors for vision: rods and cones. Fundus and Optic Disc
Fundus the part of the eye opposite the pupil
Optic Disc optic nerve head: point of exit for ganglion cell axons leaving the eye. There are no rods or cones overlying the optic disc, so it corresponds to a small blind spot in each eye. The ganglion cell axons form the optic nerve after they leave the eye.
aqueous compartment Compartment of the eye in front of the lens and ciliary body; divided by the iris into the anterior chamber and the posterior chamber.
aqueous humor Watery fluid that fills the aqueous compartment of the eye.
vitreous compartment Largest of the three chambers. Located behind the lens and in front of the optic nerve. This chamber is filled with a thick, clear gel-like substance called the vitreous humor (also vitreous body). The humor supports the posterior side of the lens.
vitreous humor the transparent gelatinous tissue filling the eyeball behind the lens.
anterior chamber the aqueous humor-filled space inside the eye between the iris and the cornea's innermost surface, the endothelium. Hyphema, anterior uveitis and glaucoma are three main pathologies in this area.
posterior chamber a narrow space behind the peripheral part of the iris, and in front of the suspensory ligament of the lens and the ciliary processes. The posterior chamber consists of small space directly posterior to the iris but anterior to the lens.
Canal of Schlemm a circular canal lying in the substance of the sclerocorneal junction of the eye and draining the aqueous humor from the anterior chamber into the veins draining the eyeball.
conjunctiva is a tissue that lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera (the white of the eye).
lens composed of transparent, flexible tissue and is located directly behind the iris and the pupil. It is the second part of your eye, after the cornea, that helps to focus light and images on your retina.
accommodation the ability of the eye to change its focus from distant to near objects (and vice versa). This process is achieved by the lens changing its shape.
Rods Are more sensitive to light. They produce a somewhat coarse image in shades of gray. The main receptors of r low-light vision.
Cones Are more sensitive to color and detail, but they do not function well in dim light. Perceive color and detail.
Fovea Centralis a small, central pit composed of closely packed cones in the eye. It is located in the center of the macula lutea of the retina and is not found in domestic animal eyes.
conjunctival sac the space bound between the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva in to which the lacrimal fluid is secreted and opens interiorly between the eyelids. it ends at the superior and inferior conjunctival fornices
Lateral and medical canthi (plural: canthus) The lateral and medial corners where the eyelids come together.
tarsal glands (meibomian glands) exocrine glands along the rims of the eyelid inside the tarsal plate. They produce meibum, an oily substance that prevents evaporation of the eye's tear film.
Nictitating membrane a whitish or translucent membrane that forms an inner eyelid in birds, reptiles, and some mammals. It can be drawn across the eye to protect it from dust and keep it moist.
lacrimal apparatus Physiological system containing the orbital structures for tear production and drainage: lacrimal gland- which secretes the tears and its excretory ducts- which convey the fluid to the surface. It is a serous gland located in lacrimal fossa.
lacrimal glands An epithelial gland that is responsible for about 60% of the production of the aqueous component of the precorneal tear film in the canine eye. The remaining 40% contributed by the accessory lacrimal gland of the third eyelid
lacrimal puncta A minute opening on the summits of the lacrimal papillae, seen on the margins of the eyelids at the lateral extremity of the lacrimal lake. There are two lacrimal puncta in the medial (inside) portion of each eyelid.
extraocular eye muscles The six muscles that control movement of the eye and one muscle that controls eyelid elevation (levator palpebrae). The actions of the six muscles responsible for eye movement depend on the position of the eye at the time of muscle contraction
Created by: Raevyn1



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