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DOA Core Exam

Pest Control

What is IPM? -Integrated Pest Management. -The combining of appropriate PC tactics into a single plan to reduce pests and their damage. These tactics may include host resistance, biological/ cultural/mechanical, and sanitation.
What are the 5 steps of IPM? 1) Identification/ Inspection 2) Sanitation 3) Exclusion 4) Monitoring 5) Pesticides
What is an LD50 number? Lethal Dose 50% - The amount of the substance required (usually per body weight) to kill 50% of the test population *The lower the LD50#, the more toxic it is.
List the label signal words from most toxic to least toxic. Pesticide Category | Signal Word | LD50 Cat 1----------------- | Danger -------| 0-50 Cat 2----------------- | Warning ----- | 51-500 Cat 3----------------- | Caution ------ | 501-5000 Cat 4----------------- | None --------- | 5000+
When applying pesticides what should you always check the label for? The site or crop and the target pest. *if the site or crop is not on the label, the pesticide cannot be applied
All pesticide labels must have what statement? "Keep out of reach of children"
How much effect does your speed (walking or running) have of the nozzle performance? None
Which pesticide formulation is most dangerous when mixing and loading? Why? Emulsifiable Concentrate (EC) -When undiluted, this concentrate can most readily be absorbed through the skin -Its a liquid so it can spill, splash, odors in the air
What are the 4 main types of pesticide formulations? Wettable Powder (WP) Dust (D) Granules (G) Emulsifiable Concentrate (EC)
What is involved with pest control monitoring? Things that you can leave behind and return to check on like traps, glue boards, bait stations, pheromone traps, etc.
What is the best way to clean a nozzle? With a soft bristle brush
What is the danger of back siphoning? How do you prevent it? If you are using a hose to fill a tank with water, avoid letting the hose nose touch the surface of the water. If you were to turn the water off with the nose touching, the water could be sucked back up and this would contaminate the next use.
How should you store pesticides? - On plastic or steel shelves (not wood, too porous) - In a cool, dry and locked storage room
Pinpoint pupils is a symptom of what type of poisoning? Organophosphate Poisoning (compounds are used as commercial insecticides)
What is the Resource Conservation & Recovery Act? And who enforces it? -A federal law in the U.S. governing the disposal of solid waste and hazardous waste -Hawaii Dept of Health
What should you do with an empty pesticide container? - Reusable: triple/ pressure rinse right away. - NON-reusable: Crush, break or puncture. Triple rinse and dispose properly according to the RCRA rules.
What should you do with excess pesticides? *Check label for approved ways to get rid of it. - spray it out somewhere i.e treat ant mounds
What are the best types of gloves to use when handling pesticides? How often should you replace reusable gloves? -Nitrile, Butyl or Neoprene gloves because they are chemical resistant. *non-chemical resistance gloves will bubble. crack, come apart, and change color - most after 5-7 days of work but always replace if holes/tears
How long do we need to keep field/ application records for pesticides used? 2 years
What is a Special Local Need (SLN) registration? And how long do these last before expiration? -getting permission from the manufacturer/ a gov agency to use a product to treat a pest or location that the product isnt normally used for available -5 years
What factors breakdown pesticides in the soil? -micro-organisms/ bacteria -water/ rain -heat/ UV rays
When would you use air purifying respirators? When there is adequate oxygen and there is a low concentration of pesticide
What 3 things should you do if you spill a pesticide? -put on PPE -contain the spill -call manager
What can be used to contain a pesticide spill? -A Professional Spill Kit, Crystals -Kitty Litter -Sand -Saw Dust
What are the disadvantages of using a Wettable Power? -inhalation hazard while pouring and mixing -requires constant agitation -abrasive/ clogging to pumps and nozzles causing them to wear out quickly -difficult to mix in hard or alkaline water -residues may be visible on dark surfaces
Soluble Powders (SP) have all the advantages of a Wettable Powder and none of the disadvantages except... ...the inhalation hazard during pouring and mixing concentrate
Which formulation is most toxic to plants? Why? Emulsifiable concentrates because oil burns in the heat.
What is Capsule Suspension (CS) aka a Microencapsulated concentrate (ME)? A formulation in which the active ingredient (whether dry or liquid) is covered (or encapsulated) by a protective coating. When mixed with water, the plastic coating of the breaks down providing a “timed” slow release.
When can you reenter a structure treated with a pesticide? Read the label for the Restricted Entry Interval (REI). It could be 4hrs, 12 hrs, after dry, etc.
Some pesticides are toxic to bees. Why is this considered a disadvantage? Bees are beneficial insects. Be sure to check the Environmental Hazard section of the label.
How do you re-package a damaged pesticide container? -Place pesticides in previously unused container and label it OR Place in some type of container that once held the same product. *Never put in a container that once held a different product.
What do you do if you spill pesticide on your clothing? Remove immediately and wash yourself
If clothing becomes contaminated with an Emulsifiable Concentrate (EC), what should you do? What should you never do? Discard. Never put in the washing machine; the contaminated water will be drained to the city water reserves
How do you transport pesticides in a truck bed? Upright and secured, readable labels
During pesticide application, how should you wear long shirt sleeves and long trousers? Long sleeves and pant legs should never be tucked in. Wear outside of gloves and boots.
What is drift? How do you avoid it? Movement of pesticide away from target area (usually cause by wind). Avoid by using a larger nozzle size and lower pump pressure. This will ensure that bigger drops come out which fall faster and they will be less likely to be carried off.
When should you NOT wear chemical resistant gloves and shoes? Why? When applying most fumigants because the gloves and footwear can trap the gas near the skin and cause burns.
What is the difference between acute and chronic pesticide poisoning? Acute is from one time exposure and the effects are seen right away. Chronic is continuous exposure and symptoms appear later.
Which pesticide formulations have the most drift potential? fumigants (gas) and dust
What can cause pest resistance to pesticides? Ignoring IMP procedures and relying on pesticide application only.
What are the 4 routes pesticides can enter your body? (DOOR) Dermal, Oral, Ocular, Respiratory
What is an Adjuvant? A chemical (inert ingredient) added to a pesticide formulation or tank mix to increase its effectiveness or safety.
What is a Surfactant? The most common adjuvant used that alters the dispersing, spreading and wetting properties of spray droplets.
What is an Wetting agent? A type of adjuvant that allows WP to mix with water.
What is a Emulsifier? A type of adjuvant that allows oil based pesticies (EC's) to mix with water.
What is a Sticker? A type of adjuvant that allows pesticides to stay on the treated surfaces.
What is a Foaming agent? A type of adjuvant that helps to reduce drift and improve distribution in a void space.
What is a Buffer? A type of adjuvant that allows a pesticide to be mixed with diluents or other pesticides of different acidity or alkalinity
Which formulation would you use if you were concerned about harming a treated surface? Which should you never use? - Use WP. - Never use EC's which could be corrosive and cause pitting or discoloration of the treated surface
Which formulation would you use if you wanted to treat ants under foliage on the ground? Granules
What does a spot treatment entail? Treating a 2 sq ft area (no more than 20-25% of total surface area)
What happens if a pesticide applicator violates Hawaii Pesticide Law? They are issued a written notice for specific violations and necessary corrective action will be taken.
What is the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA) aka SARA Title III? A Federal law that requires pesticide applicators to report certain cases of pesticide spills, leaks, fires and storage. This allows members of the community to find out about hazardous chemicals present in their community.
What is the purpose of the Endangered Species Act? How does it effect pesticide use? -To protect rare plants and animals. -The label requires that you get additional info from local government agencies before using the pesticide in an area that might have these protected plants or animals.
What 3 circumstances contribute to failed pesticide treatment? 1) Mis-Identifying target pest 2) Pesticide resistance 3) Wrong pesticide used or wrong dosage
What are threshold levels? The level of pest populations at which you should take pest control action if you want to prevent the pests in an area from causing unacceptable harm or injury. Thresholds may be based on aesthetic, health or economic considerations.
Why are pesticides labeled? The labeling gives you instructions on how to use the product safely and correctly. Pesticide users are required by law to comply with all the instructions and directions for use.
What is a pesticide formulation? The mixture of active and inactive ingredients that forms a pesticide product.
What is the difference between active ingredients and inactive ingredients? - Active ingredients are the chemical in the pesticide that controls the pest. - Inactive ingredients (aka adjuvant) are the chemicals in the product that make it safer, more effective, easier to handle/measure/mix/apply.
What factors should you consider when you have a choice of formulations for a pest control task? Think about : -The characteristics of the formulation. -Do you have the right equipment? -Can it be applied safely? -Will it reach the target and stay in place long enough to control the pest? -Might it harm the target site?
If drift were a major concern, is it better to use a WP or G formulation? G is better because they have a much lower drift hazard than WP.
If you need to treat a surface that is not level such as on foliage, is it better to use WP or G formulation? WP is better because G does not stick to nonlevel surfaces.
Is it better to use WP or EC if you were concerned about harming a treated surface? WP is better because EC's are corrosive and pay cause pitting/discoloration/other damage.
Which would be best if you were diluting with very hard or alkaline water, WP or EC? EC is better because WP's are very difficult to mix in very hard/alkaline water.
What is meant by point-source contamination? Point-source pollution comes from a specific, identifiable place. - Ex: a pesticide spill that moves into a storm sewer.
What is meant by NON point-source contamination? NON point-source pollution comes from a wide area. - Ex: The movement of pesticides into streams after broadcast applications.
Name some ways that careless pesticide handling could lead to point-source pollution. - improper disposal of containers, water from rinsing containers and excess pesticides - failure to correctly clean up spills/leaks at storage sites - spilling while mixing concentrates or loading into application equipment
What is the first hing you should do when you detect the presence of a pest that you think you may need to control? Identify the pest to be sure you know exactly what the problem is.
How can pest identification help you to develop a good pest control strategy? This allows you to determine basic information about it like life its cycle and the time that it is most susceptible to being controlled.
Explain the difference between continuous pests, sporadic pests and potential pests. - continuous pests are nearly always present and require regular control - sporadic pests are migratory, cyclical or occasional, once in a while control is needed - potential pests are not pests under normal conditions but can become
Explain the difference between prevention, suppression and eradication? - prevention is keeping a pest from becoming a problem - suppression is reducing pest numbers or damage - eradication is destroying an entire pest population
Describe pest monitoring and explain how it can be important in the pest control strategy. - Monitoring is checking or scouting for pest in an area to determine what pest is present, how many of each kind, how much damage they are causing. - This helps determine if the threshold has been reached and if control measures have been effective.
You applied a pesticide but it did not control the pest. Name 4 reasons why your efforts might have failed. 1) pest resistance 2)choosing the wrong pesticide 3)misidentifying the pest 4)applying the pesticide incorrectly
Explain the difference between the terms "label" and "labeling". -The label is the information printed on or attached to the pesticide container. - Labeling includes the label itself plus all other info you receive from the manufacturer about the product when you buy it.
What do the words "Restricted Use Pesticide" tell you about the pesticide product? The product has been shown to be likely to harm people or the environment if not used correctly. It may be purchased and used only by certified applicators and those under their direct supervision.
Explain the difference between chemical name, common name and brand name. - chemical name identifies the chemical components and structure of the pesticide - common name is a shorter name used as a substitute for the chemical name - brand name is usually a trademark used by a chemical company to identify a pesticide product
What types of hazard statements should you look for in the pesticide labeling? Look for precautions about the hazards to humans and domestic animals, environmental hazards, and physical/chemical hazards.
What is the meaning of the statement "It is a violation of Federal law to use this product in a manner inconsistent with its labeling"? It is illegal to use a pesticide in any way not permitted by the labeling i. e it may only be used on sites/plants/animals named in the directions. You cannot use higher dosages or concentrations or increase frequency of application.
What factors determine how well your coverall will protect your body? What should you do with a coverall that has a highly toxic pesticide concentrate spilled on it? - fits loosely so there is a layer of air between it and the skin/inner clothing, worn over another layer of clothing, tight seams and overlapping closures that do not gape or become unfastened readily - throw it away! cannot be cleaned adequately
Why should you wear protective headgear? What type should you wear? -When you may be exposed to pesticides from above or near your face. -Wear a chemical resistant hood or wide brimmed hat. Plastic "Safari" hats with plastic sweatbands are a good choice.
What types of protective eyewear is appropriate? Googles, a face shield, safety glasses with brow and side shields.
What are the differences among dust/mist filtering respirators, vapor respirators and air-supplying respirators? - dust/mist filtering respirators are mask cartridges that filter particles - vapor respirators use a cartridge or canister to remove pesticide gases - air-supplying respirators provide you with clean air from an air tank or another location
What should you do when you're finished using your respirator for the day? After how many hours should you dispose masks/cartridges? - Discard non-reusable ones - If reusable: Take off prefilters/cartridges/canisters, replace caps and seal in a plastic ziplock bag. Wash respirator body and face piece ( for 2 min soak in bleach and hot water, rise, hang dry). -Usually after 8hrs.
What 2 precautions should you take to avoid getting pesticides into your water source at a mix-load site? - Keep the water pipe or hose well above the pesticide mixture to prevent back-siphoning -avoid mixing or loading in areas where a spill would go into the water system
What are 4 types of PPE should you consider wearing while mixing or loading pesticides? Front protection, face protection, dust protection, vapor protection.
What safety procedures should you follow each time you apply a pesticide? -deliver pesticide to the target site -check the delivery rate -check for appearance -avoid non-target organisms -avoid non-target surfaces -operate equipment safely
What should you do right after you are finished mixing, loading or applying? -Wash your pesticide equipment, then wash yourself. -Safely store/ dispose of excess pesticides -Make a record of what you applied
What should you do with rinsate that you create when you clean your equipment? Collect, reuse if possible or dispose of excess.
What is involved in personal cleanup after pesticide handling? - Wash the outside of your gloves before taking them off, carefully remove your PPE and any underclothes that are contaminated. If you cannot take a shower right away, wash with liquid detergent.
Why should you keep records of pesticide application? -Proof of proper use -Save money as you track your usage amounts -Reduce mistakes or misuse
What are closed mixing and loading systems? Systems designed to prevent pesticide from coming in contact with handlers or other persons during mixing and loading.
What are enclosed application systems? An enclosure such as a cab or cockpit that surrounds the occupants and prevents them from coming in contact with pesticides outside the enclosure.
Which roach variety are found neat water sources like kitchens and bathrooms? German Roach
Which roaches would not necessarily require indoor treatment? American and Australian Roach
After the initial service, when is the soonest customers may call for a reservice? 14 days
What situations do we recommend a monthly service? -Most Restaurants and Tick Problems
Which are the hardest ant species to control? Big Headed Ants
Which pest are not considered "structural pests"? -Uku's (Lice) -Mo'o (Gecko's) -Polynesian Roaches -Scabbies



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