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VET 113 CH4 Vocab.

Cell Physiology

Subcutaneous Edema When fluid leaks into the tissue under the skin.
Active Membrane Process -absorptive or excretory processes that require energy -movement of molecules
Pulmonary Edema When fluid leaks from vessels into the surrounding lung tissue.
Kinetic Energy - Molecules are constantly moving, gyrating, and at times, bouncing into one another. - Increase at warmer temps. - Decrease at colder temps.
Concentration Gradient The spectrum between the area of highest concentration and the area of lowest concentration. (High to Low = diffusion)
Diffusion - KINETIC MOVEMENT - The tendency for molecules to move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. - Moving down the concentration gradient
3 Principle factors that determine Passive Diffusion 1. Molecular Size = very small (H2O) 2. Lipid solubility = alcohol, steroids, dissolved gases 3. Molecular Charge = need channels
Facilitated Diffusion - NO ENERGY - Diffusion of molecules across the cell membrane with the aid of carrier proteins - Reaction is unable to be preformed as simple diffusion and requires no energy or ATP
Impermeable Refers to structures that do not allow the passage of fluid.
Freely Impermeable Structures that allow the passage of fluids
Selectively Permeable Structures that allow some things pass through but others not.
Voltage - Potential electrical energy created by separation of opposite electric changes on either side of the cell membrane. - All cells possess and maintain a membrane potential.
Membrane Potential - The difference in voltage that exists on either side of a cell membrane caused by the different concentrations of positive and negative charges. - Difference in Permeability
Meiosis - Reduction division that reproductive cells undergo during their development. - Results in a reduction of chromosome # from the normal diploid # to the haploid # (half of the diploid #) - Reproductive cells divide
Reproductive Cells - Cells found in ovary and testies that carry the genetic code. - Each cell contains 1/2 of genetic code, which is expressed as a haploid # of chromosomes (gametes).
Somatic Cells Non-reproductive cells found throughout the body, containing a dip[loid # of chromosomes and replication themselves through the cell division process of mitosis.
Mitotic Phase (M) - Cell is actively dividing - Mitosis, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis
Centromere - Protein disc that holds a pair of chromatids together as a chromosome and then holds that chromosome to a spindle fiber during cell division. - Point where identical DNA strands become chromatids (central point).
Water of Oxidation (Metabolic H2O) - Animals take in H2O from eating moist or wet foods & drinking fluids. - Small amount of H2O is produced as the by-product of cellular metabolism.
Insensible H2O loss - Animal loses H2O - Vaporized away from body during respiration and diffuses passively away from skin. - IE: sweating, vocalizing, urinating, defecating
Extracellular Fluid - The fluid located outside the cell. - 1/3 of TBW (total body H2O)
Intracellular Fluid - Fluid that is contained within cells, - 2/3 (vast majority) of total body water
Interstitial Fluid - Tissue fluid - Fluid contained within the tissues except for the fluid found within lymph and blood vessels.
Cyclin-dependent Kinases (CDKs) - 1 protein isolated that allow the cell to enter mitosis. - Present at constant levels in the cell and are activated when they bind to cyclin proteins. - Activated, trigger a cascade of enzymatic activity, which enables cell division.
Intravascular Fluid Extracellular fluid found in lymphatic and blood vessels.
Solutes - Body fluids are filled w/ many different kinds of particles. - Substance that is dissolved in another. - Component of a solution that is present in lesser amounts
Cation + charged ions (Na, Mg, Ca, K)
Anion - charged ions
Ion - An electrically charged atom or molecule - Cations - Anions
Electrolyte A substance that conducts an electric current in solutions
Alkaline - Adjective describes substances with a pH above 7 (basic) - Solutions have fewer hydrogen ions (more hydroxide ions) than pure H2O
Osmolality - Measurements of the solute concentrations in fluids - High concentration of solutes = high osmolality - Very w/ narrow range
High or Low Osmolality: DEHYDRATION High osmolality
High or Low osmolality: OVERHYDRATION Low osmolality
High or low osmolality: PRESENCE OF HYPERGLYCEMIA CAUSED BY DIABETES High osmolality
High/low osmolality: PROBLEMS W/ THE FUNCTIONING OF THE HYPOTHALAMUS IN THE BRAIN, WHICH PRODUCES ADH Low osmolality w/ trauma to the head
High/low osmolality: POISONING BY ETHYLENE GLYCOL High osmolality
High/low osmolality: EXCESSIVE USE OF STEROIDS Low osmolality
Edema - Common sign of abnormal movement of fluid from vascular space into the interstitial space. - Abnormal accumulation of fluid, either localized or generalized, within the tissues or cavities of the body.
Cutaneous edema When fluid leaks from vessels into the skin
Cell membrane - Selectively permeable outer membrane of the cell that is composed of a phospholipid bilayer, protein, and cholesterol - Plasma membrane - Plasmalemma
Pitting cutaneous edema - Identified if an indentation remains in the skin after pressure - Condition in when dents are left behind in moist, edematous tissue when pressed firmly.
Fluid therapy administered phases (3) 1. Resuscitation 2. Replacement 3. Maintenance
Resuscitation fluid Goal is increase the volume of fluid in the intravascular space and to raise blood pressure quickly
Replacement fluid - Administered to correct dehydration, replace fluid losses and to provide for maintenance fluid requirements. - Replacement = loss from dehydration + ongoing losses + maintenance fluid needs
Hypertonic - When the concentration of particles in solution is higher outside the cell. - May cause H20 to move from the inside to the outside of the cell to attain equilibrium. - Cell shrivels and becomes crenated
Hypotonic - Concentration of a solution outside the cell is lower than it is on the inside of the cell. - Water will tend to flow into the cell toward the higher concentration. - Causing swelling and possible rupture of the cell.
Isotonic - Equal osmotic pressure present on either side of the cell membrane. - Products with an osmolality comparable to that of normal blood, such as 0.9% NaCl.
Osmosis - The passive movement of H20 through a semipermeable membrane into a solution where the H20 concentration is lower. - Goal is to achieve the same concentration of solution on both sides of a semipermeable membrane = equilibrium
Equilibrium - OSMOSIS - Balance of solutes & solution between the inside and outside of the cell. - Salt and water concentrations - Concentration balance
Osmotic Pressure - The force of fluid moving from 1 side of a semipermeable membrane to other side because of differences in solute (dissolved) concentrations on the 2 sides of membranes. - Fluid moves from lower to higher = equalize concentrations
Oncotic pressure - The difference between the osmotic pressure of blood & the osmotic pressure of interstitial fluid or lymph - Important force in maintaining fluid balance between the blood & lymph in vessels and the fluid in surrounding tissues
Ascites - Abnormal condition in which an excessive amount of fluid accumulation is present in the abdominal cavity. - Abdominal distention or a potbellied appearance can be clinically evident
Filtration The passage of a fluid, in response to pressure, through a semipermeable membrane that allows the liquid portion to pass through but not cells & large molecules such as proteins.
Hydrostatic pressure - The force that propels a liquid. - Based on pressure gradient (filtration)
Symport system - ACTIVE TRANSPORT - A system in which all of the substances are moved in the same direction. - Many active transport systems move more than one substance at a time.
Active Transport - ACTIVE MEMBRANE PROCESS - Process that moves ions or molecules across the cell membrane and against the concentration gradient. - Requires energy - Does not require a concentration gradient
Antiport system When two separate materials are moved across the plasma membrane in opposite direction at the same time.
Cytosis - The active transport of materials into or out of the cell. The transported material is bound by a membrane. - Bringing nutrients into the cell and ejecting waste. - Requires ATP
Endocytosis "GOING INTO THE CELL" - Taking in of a material from the outside of the cell by creating a "mouth" with the plasma membrane. - Membrane engulfs the material & pinches off @ the ends to form a vesicle
Phagocytosis "CELL EATING" - Ingestion of microorganisms or other substances by phagocytic cells. (neutrphis, monocytes, macrophages) - Cell engulfs solid material
Phagosome The vesicle formed by phagocytosis, which contains material to be digested.
Pinocytosis The ingestion by a cell of liquid material through endocytosis ("CELL DRINKING")
Phagocytize - The verb describing ingestion of solid material by a cell - White blood cells - Police tissues and keep them free of foreign invaders such as bacteria and viruses
Amoeboid motion "ARMLIKE PROJECTIONS" - Amoeba-like movement accomplished by the extension of pseudopodia to create a streaming movements of cytoplasm
Pseudopodia (pseudopod) "FALSE FOOT" - Temporary extension of the cell's membrane & cytoplasm either for locomotion or to engulf nourishment
Receptor - mediated endocytosis "VERY SPECIFIC" - A very specialized form of endocytosis that only allows the cell to incorporate those materials that have protein receptor sites specifically for that material on the cell. - Specific proteins in their plasma membrane
Coated pit "RECEPTOR-MEDIATED" - Parts of cell membrane that have a hair like coating necessary for endocytic functions - Portions of cell membrane pinch off to form vesicles that aid in the intracellular transport of materials
Exocytosis "GOING OUT OF THE CELL" - Passage of materials too large to diffuse through the cell membrane by packaging them in vesicles, transporting them to the cell membrane and then pressing them out of the cell - Excretion and secretion
Excretion - The elimination of waste materials from the cell or body - Exocytosis
Secretion - The process by which a cell or gland produces and expels some useful product - Used to refer to the product itself - Exocytosis
Passive Membrane Process Absorptive or excretory processes that do not require energy.
Simple Diffusion The ability of some molecules, such as oxygen, water and carbon dioxide, to pass through the cell membrane without the aid of carrier proteins.
Carrier Protein Any protein that facilitates diffusion of a specific molecule through the cell membrane. (aids in transportation)
Resting Membrane Potential - The electric charge of some cells at rest, caused by differing concentrations of ions inside and outside the cell membrane. - Changes in environmental tonicity, osmotic pressures, temp, and contact with neighboring cells may alter resting membrane.
Mitosis "M" - Cell division of somatic cells for growth and to replace old or dead cells. - Chromosomes first duplicate themselves and then pull apart into 2 daughter cells - Preserves the diploid chromosomes
Interphase "METABOLIC PHASE" - Period between cell divisions durning which all normal growth and functions occur - G1, S, G2 - Nucleus and nucleoli are visible and the chromatin is arranged loosely throughout the nucleus
Growth One Phase (G1) - Part of interphase, during cell division, the cell enlarges and organelles replicate over times which varies between cell types. -Cellular growth - Metabolic activity - Stage 1 of interphase
Synthetic Phase (S) - The period spent by the cell in preparation for cell division, in which the cell begins to replicate and synthesize DNA - Progress more rapidly - Second stage of interphase
Growth Two Phase (G2) - Part of interphase, during cell division, enzymes and proteins are synthesized and the centrioles complete their replication - Centrioles complete their replication - Final
Cytokinesis The separation of the cytoplasm into 2 separate daughter cells during the mitotic stage of cell division called TELOPHASE
Metaphase The phase of mitosis when the newly formed chromosomes align on a medial plane or "equator" between the 2 centrioles located @ each of the dividing cells (exact center of the spine)
Metaphase Plate - During metaphase, the site where chromosomes line up & are evenly distributed. - Midway between poles of the cell
Anaphase -Phase of Mitosis -Daughter chromosomes begin to migrate to their respective centrioles; away from the center of the dividing cell. -Splits in half and each single strand becomes its own independent chromosomes -Spindle fiber shortens
Telophase "FINAL STAGE" -Phase of mitosis when the daughter chromos. return to being long-fiber chromatids, the nuclear envelope & nucleoli reappear, and the cell has completed its formation of 2 completely independent daughter cells
Contact Inhibition - That property that inhibits cells from dividing when in proximity to other cells. - Normal cells stop dividing when they come into contact with surrounding cells.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) - One of the main components of protein synthesis - mRNA transfers the specific amino acid sequence of the genetic code of DNA to the cytoplasm, where protein is synthesized.
Transcription - The process of transcribing the genetic code from DNA & RNA through protein synthesis using messenger RNA. - Process of making mRNA
Transfer RNA (tRNA) - Carries Amino acid - Transfers amino acids to the ribosome for protein synthesis - Nucleotides or anticodons of tRNA base-pair with the codon triplets of mRNA to accomplish the process.
Translation -Process of protein synthesis using mRNA to transfer genetic information in the form of nucleotides into amino acid form. -Process occurs in the cytoplasm on ribosomes.
Terminators - STOP SIGNAL - Codes within the DNA sequence that indicate where RNA synthesis should end.
RNA Polymerase - An enzyme that aids in transcription by converting DNA base sequences into RNA base sequence. - Special enzyme binds to a DNA molecule and coordinates bonding between DNA and RNA
Exon - Parts of a gene's DNA sequence that are coded. - Separated by noncoding portions, called introns, which are spliced out to join the eons together to form messenger RNA - Separate informational triplets
Intron - Spaces between coded eons of a gene's DNA sequence that do not contain codes - DNA has non informational or "nonsense" triplets
Codon - Genetic code of an amino acid expressed in DNA or messenger RNA as 3 bases - Each represents a different amino acid. They translate into the order of the amino acids in the protein.
Small Ribonucleoproteins - COMPLEXES - RNA - protein complexes that remove conceded introns from mRNA and splice together the coded eons to create a complete and identical copy of the DNA gene - Cutout the introns
Spliceosomes - Specialized areas in the nucleus created by small ribonucleic proteins that remove conceded introns from mRNA - Form an assembly line - Specialized RNA-protein complexes
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) - One of the main components of ribosomes - Aids in protein synthesis and the combination of amino acids to create protein molecules - Protein and rRNA molecules are interwoven to form 2, unequally sized, globular units.
Anticodon - Triplet pair of nucleotides in tRNA that corresponds to the triplet bases or codons of mRNA - Bonds between mRNA and tRNA molecules occur only if the nitrogenous bases in the codon and anticodon are complementary.
Genetic Code - Unique order of pyrimidine - and purine-based nucleotides that govern the arrangement and transmission of genetic information in all living things. - exception of RNA-based viruses - Three nitrogenous bases represent one amino acid
Gene - SUBUNITS OF DNA MOLECULES - Specific sites on chromosomes that dictate heredity. Some control specific phenotypic trait whereas other traits require many genes for proper expression. - Carries all of the information necessary to make 1 peptide chain
Chromatids - Strands of genetic material that, when joined together with another chromatid by a centromere, form a chromosome - Linked together at a constriction in the middle - centromere
Cyclins - Protein isolated that allow the cell to enter mitosis - Regulatory proteins whose levels increase and decrease throughout each cell life cycle.
Promoters Codes within the DNA sequence that indicate where RNA synthesis should begin - START SIGNALS
Mutation A sudden and irreversible genetic change that causes a difference between offspring and their parents. - GENETIC ERROR
Mutagen - An agent that can create a transmissible genetic change in an organism's DNA - Can affect genetic material in several ways - Virus - Ionizing radiation - Chemicals
Development - The growth of an organism to full size or maturity - Miraculously choreographed event
Differentiation - The progressive acquisition of individual characteristics by cells to enable them to perform different functions. - Temporary or permanent inhibition of genes that may be active in other cells
Mitotic Phase - The period during which cell division occurs. - Divided into the main phases of interphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
Prophase - The phase during mitotic division when chromatin becomes visible & organizes into chromosomes by joining 2 strands via a centromere - Nuclear envelope and nucleoli disappear - Centrioles divide and replicate traveling to either "pole" of the cell
Absorptive cell - Found in small intestine that can absorb nutrients from the luminal surface via phagocytosis and pinocytosis - Large surface areas as a result of the presence of microvilli = increases absorptive capability
Created by: jsaucedo



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