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Vet. Terminology

Neurological System & Special Senses (ch 9, 10 & 11)

cerebra(o)- cerebrum
cerebell(o)- cerebellum
cerebro(o)spin-al pertaining to the cerebrum ("brain") and spine ("spinal cord")
Hemi-sphere half-ball (sphere) half a ball or globe
Brachi-al arm-pertaining to pertaining to the brachium ("arm")
lumbo(o)sacr-al lumbus/lumbar-sacrum-pertaining to pertaining to the lumbus (lumbar vertebrae) and the sacrum
Inter-vertebr-al between-vertebra-pertaining to Pertaining to between vertebrae
Epi-dur-al Upon-dura mater-pertaining to pertaining to upon the dura (dura mater)
afferent to carry to/toward
efferent to carry out/away
somat-ic body-pertaining to pertaining to the body
viscer-al organs/viscera-pertaining to pertaining to an organ or organs
auto-nom-ic self-law/control-pertaining to pertaining to self control, anatomically refers to the autonomic nervous system
sympathet-ic pertaining to sympathy, anatomically refers to the sympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system
para-sympathet-ic near or beyond pertaining to "beyond sympathy, anatomically refers to the parasympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system
cholin-erg-ic acetylcholine-to work-pertaining to pertaining to choline work, physiologically refers to function with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
sympth(o)mimet-ic sympathy-mimic-pertaining to pertaining to sympathy imitation, clinically refers to any agent that mimics the sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system.
adren-erg-ic adrenal-to work-pertaining to pertaining to adrenal work (syn: sympathomimetic)
para-sympath(o)mimet-ic near/beyond-sympathy-mimic-pertaining to pertaining to parasympathetic imitation, clinically refers to any agent that mimics the parasympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system.
anti-cholin-erg-ic against-acetylcholine-work-pertaining to pertaining to against choline (acetylcholine) work, clinically refers to an agent that blocks the effects of acetylcholine (syn: parasympathetic)
para-sympath(o)lytic near/beyond-sympathy-pertaining to pertaining to parasympathetic destruction or breakage, clinically refers to an agent that blocks parasympathetic nerve impulses (anticholinergic)
Ophtham(o)logy eye-study of Study of the eye
Ophtham(o)log-ist eye-to study or knowledge-one who or one that, specialist, One who specializes in eye study, a doctor of ophthalmology
Intra-ocul-ar within-eye-pertaining to pertaining to inside the eye
Peri-ocul-ar around-eye-pertaining to pertaining to around the eye
Extra-ocul-ar outside-eye-pertaining to pertaining to outside the eye
Opt-ic vision-pertaining to Pertaining to sight/vision
Palpebr-al eyelid-pertaining to pertaining to the palpebra (eyelid)
Conjunctiv-al conjuctiva-pertaining to pertaining to the conjunctiva
sub-conjuntiv-al below/under-conjunctiva-pertaining to pertaining to under the conjunctiva
corne-al cornea-pertaining to pertaining to the cornea
Irid(o)corne-al iris-cornea-pertaining to pertaining to the iris and the cornea
scler-al scleral/hard-pertaining pertaining to the sclera (hard)
Nas(o)lacrim-al nose-tears-pertaining to pertaining to the nose and lacrima (tears)
Mio-sis less-condition of, state of, process of a condition of smallness, clinically refers to pupillary constriction
mydr-iatic pertaining to the mydriasis, clinically refers to pupillary dilation
Heter(o)chrom-ia other-color-condition of, state of, process of a condition of other color, in ophthalmology it refers to the irises of an animal, each a different color
Anis(o)-cor-ia unequal-pupil-condition of, process of, state of a condition of unequal pupils
dys-cor-ia difficult or bad-pupil-condition of, state of, process of a condition of a bad pupil, typically a deformed pupil
phot(o)phob-ia light-fear, aversion, intolerance-process of, state of a condition of light "fear," clinically refers to abnormal visual intolerance to light
ot-ic ear-pertaining to pertaining to the ear
acoust-ic sound-pertaining to pertaining to sound
audi(o)logy hearing-study of the study of hearing
vestibul-ar vestible-pertaining to pertaining to a vestible
semi-circul-ar partial-circle-pertaining to pertaining to a partial circle
cochle-ar cochlea-pertaining to pertaining to the cochlea ("snail shell")
vestibul(o)cochle-ar vestible-cochlea-pertaining to pertaining to the vestibule and cochlea
Tympan-ic drum-pertaining to pertaining to the tympanum ("drum")
Aur-al ear-pertaining to pertaining to the ear
Ot(o)scope ear-an instrument for viewing to examine the ear, clinically refers to an instrument used to examine the external ear
ot(o)tox-ic ear-poison, toxin, pertaining to pertaining to ear poison, clinically refers to any agent that may be toxic to components of the inner ear or auditory nerve
unipolar neuron make up the sensory nerve fibers of the peripheral nerves. Their cell bodies are found collected in masses of neural tissue called ganglia, and their axons continue the sensory pathway from the ganglia into the central nervous system.
bipolar neuron Associated with highly specialized sensory tissue: vision, hearing, olfaction
multipolar neuron Make up the bulk of the motor neurons of the central and peripheral nervous system
Schwann cell Also called a neuroglial cell. They wrap themselves around the axons of peripheral nerve fibers, forming myelin sheaths providing insulating characteristics for the nerve fibers.
Astrocyte neuroglial cells of CNS (brain and spinal cord). Star-like appearance. Provide structural support to brain tissues and form scar tissue after injuries. They wrap around blood vessels in the brain creating the blood-brain barrier.
Oligodentrocytes neuroglial cells (CNS) Produce the myelin found in the brain and spinal cord. Unlike Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system, they have numerous processes that wrap around separate axons. Each one can provide myelin for many axonal fibers.
Microglial cell The smallest of the neuroglial cells of the CNS. Provide support for neurons and phagocytize organisms and debris from the tissues of the brain.
Ependymal cell neuroglial cells found lining the ventricles of the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord. They are actually a type of simple cuboidal epithelium.
afferent neurons carry impulses from the peripheral nervous system toward the central nervous system. Provide sensory pathways from peripheral nerves to the spinal cord and brain.
efferent neurons carry impulses away from the central nervous system to the peripheral nervous system. They provide motor pathways fro the brain and spinal cord to the peripheral nerves and ultimately to the target organs.
afferent pathway designed more like a toll-way with very few exits. Two to be exact: one to the spinal cord (reflex arcs) and one to the brain.
efferent pathway many exits eventually leading to the effector organ or tissue. Upper and lower motor neurons.
Upper motor neurons subdivisions of efferent neurons based on location. For the most part, those efferent pathways of the CNS (primarily the brain) are considered upper motor neurons. Have control over lower motor neuron activity
Lower motor neurons those efferent pathways of the peripheral nervous system. Disturbance of either motor pathways result in abnormal motor activity.
sulci (sulcus) a groove or fissure, especially a fissure between two convolutions of the brain
gyri (gyrus) a convolution (bulging ridges), especially of the brain.
cerebral cortex (gray matter) the furrowed outer layer of gray matter in the cerebrum of the brain, associated with higher brain functions: voluntary movement, coordination of sensory information, learning and memory, and expression of individuality.
white matter (myelinated fibers) Mostly glial cells/myelinated axons. Forms the bulk of the deep parts of the brain and superficial parts of the spinal cord. Transfer information between processing centers in the gray matter and those in the other portion of the brain and spinal cord.
cerebellum Much smaller than the cerebrum. Caudal to the cerebral hemispheres and dorsal to the brain stem. Responsible for involuntary control of balance, posture, and coordination of movement.
diencephalon (interbrain) Includes the thalamus and hypothalamus. Provides connections between the cerbral hemispheres and the brain stem.
thalamus Serves primarily as a relay station (like a switch-board operator or a "traffic cop") routing all sensory information (except olfactory) to appropriate areas of the cerebrum.
hypothalamus Ventral to the thalamus. Provides for many of the body's basic homeostatic maintenance needs. (i.e. functions of hunger, cardiac rate, blood pressure, and body temperature.
The brain stem Composed of the midbrain (Mesencephalon), the pons, and the medulla. 10 to 12 pairs of cranial nerves arise from here. Does not include the 1st and 2nd cranial nerves.
The Midbrain connects the diencephalon with the rest of the brain stem
The Pons Rounded protrusion on the ventral aspect of the brain stem that forms a bridge between the the midbrain and the medulla.
The Medulla oblongata Forms caudal part of the brain stem that lies ventral to the cerebellum, between the pons and the foramen magnum. Control centers in this portion of the brain stem are associated with coughing, sneezing, and swallowing.
The Pons & Medulla Oblongata Both contain many control centers (cardiac, vasomotor, respiratory centers) for functions such as heart rate, vasoconstriction/vasodilation, and respiratory rate and rhythm.
1st Cranial Nerve Olfactory nerve: arises from the cerebrum
2nd Cranial Nerve Optic nerve: arises from the diencephalon.
The Medulla Oblongata & Spinal Cord Predominantly white matter, surrounding a small, centralized mass of gray matter. (opposite the composition of the rest of the brain.
ipsilateral belonging to or occurring on the same side of the body
Meninges Three layers of membrane encasing the brain and spinal cord: the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and the pia mater.
Dura Mater "tough mother" Most superficial layer of membrane encasing the brain and spinal cord. Composed of tough, protective, fibrous connective tissue. Connected to the skull in the cranial vault. Epidural space in the vertebral canal.
Arachnoid Mater Middle Meninx. Net-like structure. Numerous strands of the arachnoid attach it to the innermost meningeal layer and the pia mater. This delicate scaffolding creates a catacomb-like space between the two membranes: subarachnoid space.
Pia Mater "soft mother" Thinnest most delicate of the meninges. Lies closest to brain and spinal cord. Highly vascular/ closely follows contour of brain and spinal cord. Provides nutritional support via the bloodstream to the underlying neural tissues.
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Flows in the subarachnoid space. Produced in the ventricles of the brain by specialized clusters of capillaries from the pia matter: choroid plexuses.
Choroid plexuses a network of blood vessels in each ventricle of the brain. It is derived from the pia mater and produces the cerebrospinal fluid. It is covered by epithelial-like neuroglial ependymal cells.
myelography radiographic visualization of the spinal cord after injection of a contrast medium into the spinal subarachnoid space
CSF tap sites atlanto-occipital joint: found between the skull and the first cervical vertebra, and joints between the fourth and fifth and fifth and sixth lumbar vertebrae.
Blood-brain barrier protects tissues of the brain and spinal cord from potentially harmful substances. Molecular size is probably one of the biggest factors influencing the selectivity of this barrier.
olfactory nerve-1st cranial nerve This nerve conveys the sense of smell. It is formed by the axons of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS which project from the olfactory epithelium (in the nasal epithelium) to the OLFACTORY BULB.
optic nerve-2nd cranial nerve Conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
oculomotor nerve-3rd cranial nerve Provides primarily motor input for dorsal, dorsolateral, medial, dorsomedial, ventral, and ventromedial eye movement, as well eyelid movement (opening the lids). Provides parasympathetic fibers to the iris that reduce pupil size.
trochlear nerve-4th cranial nerve Carries the motor innervation of the superior oblique muscles of the eye providing primarily motor input for ventrolateral eye movement
trigeminal nerve-5th Cranial Nerve (largest) Motor/sensory nerve. Sensory part (larger): ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves sensitive to stimuli from the skin, muscles, joints of the face, mouth and teeth. Motor part (smaller) innervates the muscles of mastication.
abducens nerve-6th cranial nerve Originates in the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.
facial nerve-7th cranial nerve. Provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
vestibulocochlear nerve-8th cranial nerve Has a cochlear part (COCHLEAR NERVE) which is concerned with hearing and a vestibular part (VESTIBULAR NERVE) which mediates the sense of balance and head position.
glossopharyngeal nerve-9th cranial nerve. A mixed nerve that carries afferent sensory and efferent motor information. It exits the brain stem out from the sides of the upper medulla, just anterior (closer to the nose) to the vagus nerve.
vagus nerve-10th cranial nerve Historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve and interfaces with the parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract. The vagus nerves are paired but are normally referred to in the singular.
accessory nerve-11th cranial nerve Originates from NEURONS in the MEDULLA and CERVICAL SPINAL CORD. Has a cranial root, which joins the VAGUS NERVE and sends motor fibers to muscles of the LARYNX, and a spinal root: sends motor fibers to the TRAPEZIUS and the sternocleidomastoid muscles.
hypoglossal nerve-12th cranial nerve Originates in the medulla. Supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (supplied by the vagus). Also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
Autonomic Nervous System Helps control vital functions of the body automatically. Composed mostly of motor neurons. Controls functions such as: breathing, cardiac rate, and digestion.
Sympathetic System Branch of the autonomic nervous system that provides for fight or flight response.
sympathomimetic (of a drug) producing physiological effects characteristic of the sympathetic nervous system by promoting the stimulation of sympathetic nerves
parasympathetic system branch of the autonomic nervous system that counters the effects of the sympathetic nervous system. Cardiac rate and respiration will slow, pupils will constrict, blood flows to extremities and the digestive system, and mucous membranes regain color.
neurotransmission a means of sending electrochemical messages throughout the body, along nerve fibers.
Unmyelinated Nerve Fibers without an insulating myelin sheath.
action potential the change in electrical potential associated with the passage of an impulse along the membrane of a muscle cell or nerve cell.
resting potential Neurons at rest potential are said to be polarized. They contain large amounts of potassium ions, while extracellular fluids contain large amounts of sodium ions.
myelinated nerve fibers transmission along nerve fibers is very fast. They are insulated to prevent leakage of the impulses from the nerve fiber and the nodes of Ranvier (where action potential occurs) provide the impulse boost t maintain its strength.
saltatory conduction (from Latin saltare, to hop or leap) is the propagation of action potentials along myelinated axons from one node of Ranvier to the next node, increasing the conduction velocity of action potentials.
synapse another type of relay that provides connection between two neurons or between a neuron and a target organ or tissue.
synaptic cleft the space between neurons at a nerve synapse across which a nerve impulse is transmitted by a neurotransmitter. (also synaptic gap)
acetylcholine A neurotransmitter: a chemical released by a nerve cell or neuron. It causes muscles to contract, activates pain responses and regulates endocrine and REM sleep functions.
acetylcholine run systems Primary parasympathetic neurotransmitter of the autonomic nervous system and sympathetic autonomic nervous system's neurotransmitter for preganglionic synapses
cholinergic nerve fibers parasympathetic nerve fibers and many somatic nerve fibers (those synapsing on skeletal muscle)
preganglionic (of an autonomic nerve) running from the central nervous system to a ganglion.
Low levels of calcium: effect on neurotransmission (Gatekeeper) depolarization may occur with very little stimulation
High levels of calcium: effect on neurotransmission could actually depress the initiation of neurotransmission
Three homeostatic electrolytes: neurotransmission sodium (extracellular), potassium (intracellular), and calcium
Neuron metabolism aerobic glycolysis: refers to a condition in which glucose is converted to lactate in the presence of oxygen
reflex arc the nerve pathway involved in a reflex action, including at its simplest a sensory nerve and a motor nerve with a synapse between
a withdrawal reflex a spinal reflex intended to protect the body from damaging stimuli. It is mediated by a polysynaptic reflex resulting in the stimulation of many motor neurons in order to give a quick response
nociceptors a sensory receptor for painful stimuli
periocular Situated or occurring around the eye or eyeball
proptosis abnormal protrusion or displacement of an eye or other body part
exophthalmic having or characterized by protruding eyes
retrobulbar situated or occurring behind the eyeball
enophthalmos posterior displacement of the eyeball within the orbit due to changes in the volume of the orbit (bone) relative to its contents (the eyeball and orbital fat), or loss of function of the orbitalis muscle.
microphthalmia (Greek: mikros = small; ophthalmos = eye) A developmental disorder of the eye in which one (unilateral microphthalmia) or both (bilateral microphthalmia) eyes are abnormally small and have anatomic malformations.
subconjunctival injection can be given either under the eyeball conjunctiva (epibulbar) or underneath the conjunctiva lining the eyelid (subpalpebral). Injection underneath the conjunctiva allows drugs to bypass the epithelium, one of the main barriers that limit drug entry.
nictitating membrane a whitish or translucent membrane that forms an inner eyelid in birds, reptiles, and some mammals. It can be drawn across the eye to protect it from dust and keep it moist.
canthus the outer or inner corner of the eye, where the upper and lower lids meet
lacrimal gland produces most of the tear film
punctum the opening of a tear duct
nasolacrimal duct (also called the tear duct) carries tears from the lacrimal sac of the eye into the nasal cavity. The duct begins in the eye socket between the maxillary and lacrimal bones, from where it passes downward and backward.
tears consist of two components: watery portion providing constant bathing or flushing action and the oily portion providing a longer lasting protective coat
epiphora means an overflow of tears onto the face
extraocular muscles the six muscles that control movement of the eye and one muscle that controls eyelid elevation (levator palpebrae). The actions of the six muscles responsible for eye movement depend on the position of the eye at the time of muscle contraction.
sclera Structurally supportive it is made of thick, tough, fibrous connective tissue, and the white outer layer of the eyeball. At the front of the eye it is continuous with the cornea.
cornea (Stroma) Dome-shaped, transparent, avascular structure, consisting of layered tissue. The "frontal wall" of the anterior chamber of the eye. Outermost layer is stratified squamous epithelium. The thickest layer of the eye and contains many nociceptors. Bends light
Descemet's membrane supports the eye's innermost layer of simple squamous endothelium
aqueous humor the clear fluid filling the space in the front of the eyeball between the lens and the cornea. Bends light.
iridocorneal angle the angle formed by the iris (colored part of the eye) and cornea (transparent, dome-shaped layer covering the eye) to allow the drainage of the aqueous humor from the eye.
iris The caudal wall of the anterior chamber. It is an intraocular muscle that is shaped like a donut.
miosis When your pupil shrinks (constricts). Parasympathetic response.
mydriasis Dilation of the pupil of the eye. From sympathetic stimulation.
the lens transparent, biconvex structure. Like a magnifying glass. Formed of semifirm layers of material (like an onion)
vitreous a transparent, gelatinous substance that is also called the vitreous humor or the vitreous body. It helps maintain the shape of the globe.
retina a thin layer of tissue that lines the back of the eye on the inside. Located near the optic nerve. Purpose is to receive light that the lens has focused, convert the light into neural signals, and send these signals to the brain for visual recognition
choroid the pigmented vascular layer of the eyeball between the retina and the sclera. Provides vascular, nutritive support to the retina, as well as vascular supply to the rest of the uvea
tapetum lucidum Latin for "bright tapestry; coverlet", is a layer of tissue in the eye of many vertebrates. Lying immediately behind the retina, it is a retroreflector.
uvea the pigmented layer of the eye, lying beneath the sclera and cornea, and comprising the iris, choroid, and ciliary body.
ciliary body part of the eye that connects iris to the choroid. Consists of the ciliary muscle (which alters the curvature of the lens), a series of radial ciliary processes (from which the lens is suspended by ligaments), and the ciliary ring. Makes aqueous humor.
optic disc "optic nerve head" The point of exit for ganglion cell axons leaving the eye. Since there are no rods or cones overlying the optic disc, it creates a small blind spot in each eye. The ganglion cell axons form the optic nerve after they leave the eye.
Rods transmit black and white images and require less light to the stimulated
Cones photoreceptor cells responsible for color vision and function best in relatively bright light
external ear composed of the pinna (ear flap), external acoustic meatus, and tympanic membrane (eardrum).
external acoustic meatus passageway that leads from the outside of the head to the tympanic membrane
middle ear housed by the tympanic bulla
tympanic bulla Containing the smallest bones in the body are the otic ossicles: the malleus, the incus, and the stapes.
cerumen technical term for earwax
The Malleus (Hammer) Small bone attached to the inner surface of the tympanic membrane in the middle ear which transmits vibrations of the tympanic membrane to the incus.
The Incus A small anvil-shaped bone in the middle ear, transmitting vibrations between the malleus and stapes.
The Stapes a small stirrup-shaped bone in the middle ear, transmitting vibrations from the incus to the inner ear.
tympanic reflex helps prevent damage (hearing loss) to the auditory portion of the inner ear.
Eustachian tube a narrow passage leading from the pharynx to the cavity of the middle ear, permitting the equalization of pressure on each side of the eardrum and facilitates drainage
guttural pouches occurring in horses: might function during selective brain-cooling to maintain blood carried by the internal carotid arteries (ICA) at a temperature below the core temperature during hyperthermia
inner ear Composed of the cochlea and vestibular apparatus (vestibule and semicircular canals) All encased in the temporal bone of the skull.
cochlea (auditory inner ear) transforms the sound in neural message. Its function is to transform the vibrations of the cochlear liquids and associated structures into a neural signal.
oval window (or fenestra vestibuli) is a membrane-covered opening that leads from the middle ear to the vestibule of the inner ear. Vibrations that contact the tympanic membrane travel through the three ossicles and into the inner ear.
scala vestibuli the upper bony passage of the cochlea
round window one of the two openings from the middle ear into the inner ear. It is sealed by the secondary tympanic membrane (round window membrane), which vibrates with opposite phase to vibrations entering the inner ear through the oval window.
the Vestibule fluid filled. Important for static equilibrium.
static equilibrium The special sense which interprets the position of the head permitting the CNS to maintain stability and posture when the head and body are not moving
dynamic equilibrium he special sense which interprets balance when one is moving
nystagmus An involuntary eye movement which may cause the eye to rapidly move from side to side, up and down, or in a circle, and may slightly blur vision
Created by: Raevyn1



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