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Chapter 22 part 1

Digestive System part 1

QuestionAnswer
What two groups are organs divided into? 1. The alimentary canal (GI tract) 2. Accessory digestive organs
What are the organs of the alimentary canal? 1. Mouth, pharynx, and esophagus 2. Stomach, small intestine, and large intestine (Colon)
What are the Accessory Digestive Organs? 1. Teeth and tongue 2. Gallbladder, salivary glands, liver, and pancreas
Accessory digestive organs lie what to the alimentary canal? lie external
How are the Accessory digestive organs and the alimentary canal connected? by ducts
What do the accessory digestive organs secrete? bile, saliva, and digestive enzymes
Sate the Digestive Process. 1. Ingestion 2. Propulsion 3. Mechanical digestion. 4 Chemical digestion 5. Absorption 6. Defecation
What group of organs does Peristalsis take place in? Alimentary Canal
What is Peristalsis? a means of propulsion by action of smooth muscle in walls of alimentary canal
How does Peristalsis work? adjacent segments of the alimentary canal relax and contract in alternate waves
What does Peristalsis function to do? functions to mix and propel food
Where does segmentation take place? in the intestines
What is segmentation? Rhythmic coordinated constrictions of non adjacent areas of the intestines
What does segmentation function to do? mixes food with digestive juices
What does segmentation increase and how? it increases the efficiency of nutrient absorption by repeatedly moving different parts of food over intestine wall
What is the Peritoneum a continuous serous membrane with two layers 1. Parietal Peritoneum 2. Visceral Peritoneum
What does the Parietal Peritoneum do? lines the internal surface of the body wall (abdominopelvic wall)
What does the Visceral Peritoneum do? surrounds the digestive organs
Visceral and Parietal Peritoneum are what with each other? they are CONTINUOUS with each other
What is the Peritoneal cavity? a slit like potential space between Parietal Peritoneum and Visceral Peritoneum
There is no what in Peritoneal Cavity? there is no viscera
The Peritoneal cavity contains what that allows? cavity contains serous fluid that allows organs to glide easily over one another
What does it mean when an organ is in the Retro-peritoneal? 1. Behind the peritoneum 2. Do NOT have a mesentary 3. only partially covered with peritoneum
What happens to Retro-Peritoneal organs during development? they become part of the posterior abdominal wall
State examples of Mesentery organs. Liver, stomach, most small intestine, and transverse and sigmoid colon
What are the functions of Mesenteries? 1. provides a route for blood vessels and nerves to reach the organ 2. holds organs in place 3. sites of fat storage
What are Mesenteries? a double layer of peritoneum pointing away from the abdominal wall to cover all or part of one organ
What are Interaperitoneal Organs? Orangs that are almost completely covered with visceral peritoneum
What do Interperitoneal organs have that Retro-Peritoneal organs don't have? mesentery
What are four basic layers of the wall of the alimentary canal from the esophagus to the anus? (starting with innermost layer) 1. mucosa 2. submucosa 3. muscularis externa 4. seros
What is the inner most layer of the wall of the alimentary canal? and what are its sublayers? mucosa 1. Epithelium, Lamina propria, Muscularis mucosae
Which layer of the wall of alimentary canal is responsible for peristalsis and segmentation? muscularis externa
The INNERVATION of motility and secretion in the alimentary canal (GI tract) depends on what things? 1. Extrinsic parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation 2. Intrinsic innervation by Enteric Nervous System (ENS)
What contains all neurons of ENS, parasympathetic, sympathetic and visceral sensory fibers of ANS? Nerve Plexuses in GI wall
What are two types of Nerve Plexuses? 1. Myenteric Nerve Plexus 2. Submucosal Nerve Plexus
Where is the Myenteric nerve plexus located and what does it do? 1. in the muscularis extrema 2. controls peristalsis and segmentation
What controls peristalsis and segmentation? Myenteric nerve plexus
Where is submucosal nerve plexus located and what does it do? 1. in the submucosa 2. signals glands in the mucosa to secrete and muscularis mucosae to contract
What happens in the mouth? food is chewed, manipulated and by tongue and moistened with saliva
What lines the mouth? mucosa with stratified squamous epithelium
What is the function of the lips and cheek? to help keep food inside mouth during chewing
What are the lips and cheeks formed from? the lips are formed from orbicularis oris and the cheeks are formed by the buccinator muscles
What forms the roof of the mouth? the palate
What is the tongue? a mass of skeletal muscles covered by mucous membrane
What are the functions of the tongue? 1. Grips food and repositions it 2. Helps form some consonants 3. Houses taste buds
Where are intrinsic tongue muscles and what do they do? 1. within the tongue; not attached to the bone 2. alter the shape of the tongue
Where are extrinsic tongue muscles and what do they do? 1. external to the tongue 2. alter the position of the tongue
What are the three types of tongue papillae and which ones contain taste buds? 1. Filiform papillae- do not contain taste buds 2. Fungiform papillae- do contain taste buds 3. Circumvallate Papillae- do contain taste buds
Three Salivary Glands. Parotid gland, Sublingual gland, and submandibular gland
What is the PHARYNX lined with? stratified squamous epithelium
What pharyngeal constrictors and what do they do? 1.voluntary skeletal muscles 2. contract in sequence, from superior to inferior, to squeeze the bolus into the esophagus
What innervated the Pharyngeal Constrictors? Vagus Nerve (CN X)
What does the esophagus pass through in the diaphragm? esophageal hiatus
The esophagus joins to the stomach at the what? cardiac orifice
What closes off the lumen of the esophagus and what does this do? 1. cardiac sphincter 2. prevents regurgitation of acidic juices from stomach
The Esophagus has all 4 layers of the alimentary canal except what? and what is it replaced with? 1. serosa 2. replaced with adventitia
Why does adventitia replace serosa in esophagus wall? because peritoneum is not present about diaphragm
Created by: vs604