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Vet. Terminology

Endocrine System - The Break Down

Endocrine Organs Pituitary Gland, Thyroid Glands, Parathyroid Glands, Adrenal Glands, Pancreas, Ovaries & Testes
Endocrine System Function The internal communication system of the body using chemicals using hormones. Feedback message shuts of function.
Pituitary Gland "The Master Gland" Gives direction to the other endocrine glands through chemical and neurologic signals. Also called: Hypophysis. It is located ventromidline of the brain.
Pituitary Gland (two parts) The larger Anterior Lobe (adenohypophysis) and smaller Posterior Lobe (neurohypophysis)
Anterior Lobe (adenohypophysis) Growth Hormone (GH), Prolactin (PRL), Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Posterior Lobe (neurohypophysis) Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH), Oxytocin (OT)
Growth Hormone (GH) Target: All body cells Action: Growth, metabolic regulation
Prolactin (PRL) Target: Female Mammary Glands, Male None Known Action: Lactation (production)
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Target: Thyroid gland Action: Thyroid Hormone Production
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Target: Adrenal Cortex Action: Adrenocortical hormone production
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Target: Female Ovary (Follicles), Male testis (seminiferous tubules) Action: OOgenesis, Spermatogenesis
Luteinizing hormone (LH) Target: Female Ovary (Follicles/Corpus Luteum, Males (interstitial cells) Action: Ovulation and corpus luteum production, Testosterone production
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone Target: Unknown Action: Unknown
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) Target: Kidney Action: Water Conservation
Oxytocin (OT) Target: Female Uterus and mammary glands Action: Contraction at parturition (action of giving birth to young; childbirth)
Thyroid Ventrolateral to trachea, caudal to larynx, two lobes, secretes: Thyroxine (T3-most active)(T4-tested in blood tests in veterinary medicine), Calcitonin. Pituitary gland sends TSH. In response, the Thyroid sends Thyroxine to the rest of the body.
Thyroxine (T3 & T4) T3-most active, T4-measured in blood tests in veterinary medicine. They are unique because they are Iodine containing hormones. They adjust the metabolic rate.
Thyroid Gland Feedback Loop (negative feedback) thyroxine and triiodothyronine ("T4 and T3") are synthesized and secreted by thyroid glands and affect metabolism throughout the body. Pituitary gland reads that there is enough T3 or T4 in the system and stops producing TSH.
Calcitonin Lowers blood calcium & phosphorous Communicates with: bones, kidneys, GI tract
Parathyroid Glands (Next to the thyroid) Secretes PTH (Parathyroid Hormone)(Parathormone) Function: (Increase Blood Calcium) - releases calcium from bones, conserves calcium secretion from the kidneys, increases absorption of calcium from GI if enough Vitamin D is present.
Adrenal Glands (next to kidneys) Just cranial to each kidneys. Made up of two regions: the adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex. Functions independent of the kidneys.
Adrenal Medulla Neurotransmitters epinephrine & norepinephrine are produced. Used to be called adrenaline. They signal the sympathetic nervous system, and are responsible actions related to the fight or flight magnification
Adrenal Cortex Produces a collection of hormones called corticosteroids. Cortisol is one example. It is under the influence of the pituitary gland which releases ACTH. Also produces/secretes mineralocorticoids (Aldosterone), and sex hormones.
Corticosteroids (Cortisol) Pro: chronic stress response and are anti-inflammatory (i.e. starvation). Con: Will break down fat to be utilized as sugars. Leads to decreased immune system response, reduced muscle mass, excessive thirst Polydipsia, excessive urine production Polyuria
Mineralocorticoids (Aldosterone) Named because they're related to maintenance of electrolytes: example, sodium. Aldosterone tells the body to conserve sodium and water, this maintains blood pressure. The kidneys produce renin when it recognizes low BP.
Small amount of Sex Hormones from the Adrenal Cortex Estrogen, Progesterone, and Testosterone Not utilized for reproductive purposes. Utilized for maintenance of muscle mass.
Pancreas Exocrine: digestive enzymes (through a duct to the intestines) Endocrine: glucose homeostasis (maintain things the same). Produces insulin and glucagon.
Insulin Hormone Lowers blood sugar by moving sugar into cells.
Glucagon Hormone Increases blood sugar by activating liver gluconeogenesis.
Reproductive Hormones Main production occurs within the reproductive organs. Testes- testosterone, ovaries- estrogen and progesterone, and Uterus- prostaglandins
Reproductive Process Controlled by the Pituitary Adenohypophysis - Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) - ovarian or sperm development Lutenizing Hormone(LH)- ovulation or testosterone development Neurohypophysis - Oxytocin- Uterine contraction, milk "let down" Prolactin- milk production
Ad-ren-al pertaining to near the kidney; clinically refers to the adrenal glands, which are located close to the kidneys.
adren-erg-ic pertaining to adrenal working; clinically refers to activity stimulated by adrenaline (epinephrine)
endo-gen-ous pertaining to inside/inner production (produced with the body)
exo-gen-ous pertaining to outside/outer production (originating from outside the body)
adreno-cortic-o-trop-ic pertaining to adrenal cortex stimulating/influencing
endo-crin-o-pathy a disease of the endocrine system
Hyper-adren-o-cortic-ism a condition of excessive adrenal cortex; excessive secretion of adrenal cortex hormones
Adeno-hypo-physis growth of a gland below; clinically refers to the glandular, anterior portion of the pituitary gland.
Neuro-hypo-physis growth of nerves below; clinically refers to the neural, posterior portion of the pituitary gland.
Para-thyr-oid beside the thyroid
Hypo-thyroid-ism a state of low thyroid; clinically refers to deficient levels of hormones produced by the thyroid gland
Hyper-thyroid-ism a state of excessive thyroid; excessive thyroid hormone secretions
Anti-diuret-ic pertaining to being against urination
Hypo-glyc-em-ia a state of low glucose in the blood
Hyper-glyc-em-ia a condition of excessive thyroid (excessive thyroid hormone secretions.
Poly-dips-ia A condition of great thirst
Hypo-calc-emia a condition of deficient blood calcium
Somato-trop-ic pertaining to body influencing (turn, influence)
Gonad-o-trop-ic pertaining to gonad influencing
Pro-lact-in before milk; prolactin is the hormone that stimulates milk production
Oxy-toc-in a quick birth; oxytocin is the hormone associated with labor.
Erythr-o-poie-tin a red producer; the hormone responsible for stimulating red blood cell production.
Metabolic Rate Metabolic rate is the rate of metabolism, the amount of energy used by an animal per unit of time. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy used daily by animals at rest.
Metabolism the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life. "the metabolism of fatty acids in the kidney"
Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy a disease in which the heart muscle (myocardium) becomes abnormally thick (hypertrophied). The thickened heart muscle can make it harder for the heart to pump blood
postparturient (postpartum) After labor in childbirth
sympathomimetic (of a drug) producing physiological effects characteristic of the sympathetic nervous system by promoting the stimulation of sympathetic nerves.
mydriasis dilation of the pupil of the eye
inotropism modification of muscular contractility
hypovolemia volume depletion or volume contraction: a state of decreased intravascular volume. May be due to a loss of both salt and water or a decrease in blood volume. Refers to the loss of extracellular fluid and should not be confused with dehydration.
hyperkalemia medical term that describes a potassium level in your blood that's higher than normal. Potassium is a chemical that is critical to the function of nerve and muscle cells, including those in your heart.
Created by: Raevyn1



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