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Anatomy 10

exam 10

orbit conical cavity in which the eye and ocular adnexa are housed
orbital margin osseous margin formed by frontal, lacrimal, and zygomatic bones w/ dorsolateral gap
what closes the dorsolateral gap of the orbit orbital ligament
periorbita sheath of connective tissue and smooth muscle that encloses the orbital contents
function of periorbita 1.pushes the eye ball forward 2. 3rd eyelid downward
conjunctiva richly vascular mucous membrane.
palpebral conjunctiva lines inner surface of eyelids
nictitating membrane concave fold of palpebral conjunctiva and cartilage protruding from medial angle of eye
bulbar conjunctiva covers sclera of the eye
fornix angle formed b/w palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva
conjunctival sac potential cavity formed when eye is closed.
lacrimal apparatus 1.lacrimal gland or gland of 3rd eyelid 2.conjunctival sac 3.superior and inferior lacrimal puncta 4.lacrimal canaliculi 5.lacrimal sac 6.nasolacrimal duct 7.nasal vestibule
cornea transparent, anterior portion
sclera opaque (white) posterior portion
limbus corneoscleral junction
Bulbus Oculi: external fibrous coat 1.cornea 2.sclera 3.limbus
Bulbus Oculi: middle vascular coat 1.choroid 2.ciliary body 3.iris
choroid posterior surface, lines internal surface of sclera
tapetum lucidum reflective area in dorsal fundus
Ciliary body thickened mound at limbus. suspends lens via zonular fibers from ciliary process
ciliary body produces aqueous humor
iris most anterior segment. regulates diameter of the pupil
aqueous humor production and resportion 1.ciliary body 2.posterior chamber 3.pupil 4.anterior chamber 5.iridocorneal angle 6.scleral venous plexus
bulbus oculi: anterior chamber b/w cornea and iris/pupil
bulbus oculi: posterior chamber b/w iris/pupil and lens
bulbus oculi: vitreous chamber posterior to lens. contains vitreous body
pathway for light 1.cornea 2.anterior chamber 3.pupil 4.posterior chamber 5.lens 6.vitreous chamber 7.fundus
middle ear aka tympanic cavity
vestivular window dorsal, connects to vesibule, covered by footplate of the stapes
cochlear window ventral, connects to cavity of cochlea, covered by secondary tympanic membrane
promontory wall bulges over the cochlea
membranous labyrinth filled w/ endolymph
bony labyrinth filled w/ perilymph
membranous and osseous labyrinths function receptors w/in each sense static position of head for balance
cochlear duct w/in cochlea function receptors w/in for hearing
semicircular ducts w/in semicircular canals receptors at right angles. sense movement of the head in any plane for balance
brachyont short crown
crown exposed portion, covered by enamel
root below gumline, covered by cement
neck where the crown and root meet
pulp cavity/ root canal contains the soft tissues of the tooth (sensory and autonomic nerves, vessel). narrows w/age
apical foramen narrow opening where the nerves/vessels enter/exit the roots
periodontal ligament fibrous CT, anchors tooth into the alveolus
carnassial teeth shearing teeth, more roots
mechanical papillae filiform and conical
conical papillae sharp end, face caudally
foliate papillae leaf life, direct food caudally
Gustatory papillae taste buds. fungiform, vallate, foliate
intrinsic tongue muscles skeletal muscle, entirely w/in the tongue. local movement
extrinsic tongue muscles skeletal muscle, extend from bone to tongue
parotid duct empties into vestibule at caudal margin of superior 4th premolar
zygomatic ducts empties into vestibule near last premolar
nasopharynx from choanae to the palatopharyngeal arches
oropharynx from the palatoglossal arches to the base of the epiglottis
laryngopharynx dorsal to the larynx, from the palatopharyngeal arches to pharyngoesophageal limen
function of pharyngeal constrictor muscle swallow
flehman response phermone detection
paranasal sinuses membrane lined, air-filled, diverticula of the nasal cavity. extend into the adjacent pneumatic bones
muscles that pill hyoid caudally 1.sternohyoideus 2.sternothyroideus 3.thyrohyoideus
muscle that forms a sling under/supports the tongue mylohyoideus
geniohyoideus runs from mandibular symphysis to basihyoid. pulls hyoid apparatus rostrally
aryepiglottic fold extends b/w cuneiform process of arytenoid cartilage and epiglottis
cricothyroid innervated by what Nerve cranial laryngeal nerve
cricothyroid m tenses the vocal fold
cricoarytenoideus dorsalis m opens glottis
common carotid artery primary blood supply to head
what is w/in the carotid sheath tracheal lymphatic trunk, inter jugular v, vagosympathetic trunk, sternocephalicus m., brachopcephalicus
parotid LN located under the rostrodorsal border of the parotid salivary gland
parotid LN drains superficial structures dorsal to the palate and the ear. eyelids, associated glands, TMJ
parotid LN efferents drain medial retropharyngeal LN
Mandibular LN drains superficial structures pf the face and intermandibular space
mandibular LN efferents drains medial retropharyngeal LN
Lateral retropharyngeal LN drains deep structures in vicinity
lateral retropharyngeal LN efferents drains medial retropharyngeal LN
Medial retropharyngeal LN drains Terminal LN of head. deep structures of the head. tongue, palatine tonsils, salivary glands, deep parts of external ear.
medial retropharyngeal LN efferents drains tracheal lymphatic trunk
Trigeminal nerve divides into what nerves 1.ophthalmic 2.maxillary 3.mandibular
opthalmic n. exits cr cavity via orbital fissure
maxillary n. exits cr cavity via round foramen. to alar canal and rostral alar foramen in dog
mandibular n. exits cr cavity via oval foramen
opthalmic n function sensory to and around eye. GSA
maxillary n function sensory to and around superior arcade and lip as well as area near laterlal canthus. GSA
mandibular n function sensory to and around inferior arcade, lip, and tongue. Touch, temp, pain to tongue. GSA.
facial n.: motor muscles of facial expression and caudal belly of diagastricus. GSE
facial n.: taste sensation from rostral 2/3 of tongue. SVA
facial n.: parasympathetic GVE. fibers to lacrimal, nasal, and palatine glands as well as the mandibular and sublingual salivary glands.
muscles of facial expression are innervated by what cranial nerve 7
canine adult dental formula I3/3, C1/1, P4/4, M 2/3 x2
canine puppy dental formula I3/3, C1/1. P3/3 x2
canine teeth that permanently erupt at 3-5mo incisor 1 and 2
canine teeth that permanently erupt at 4-5mo incisor 3, premolar 1, premolar 4
canine teeth that permanently erupt at 5-7mo canine
canine teeth that permanently erupt at 5-6mo premolar 2,3. molar 1,2
canine teeth that permanently erupt at 6-7mo molar 3
canine have all adult teeth by what age 7-8mo
feline adult dental formula I 3/3 C1/1 P3/2 M1/1x2
feline kitten dental formula I 3/3 C1/1 P3/2x2
P4 canine roots 3 top, 2 bottom
M1 and M2 canine roots 3 top, 2 bottom
M 3 canine roots 0 top, 1 bottom
P3 feline roots 2 top, 2 bottom
P3 feline roots 3 top, 2 bottom
M1 feline roots 2 top, 2 bottom
Mandibular gland drain where mucus and serous fluid. drains at floor of mouth at frenulum of tongue
Sublingual: monostomatic drains where drain at mandibular duct
sublingular: polystomatic drains where drains at frenulum of tongue
muscles that aid in swallowing 1. hyopharyngeus 2.thyropharyngeus 3.cricopharyngeus
incisive papilla transmits odor and scents up to vomeronasal organ
muscles that pull hyoid apparatus caudally 1.sternohyoideus 2.sternothyroideus 3.thyrohyoideus
muscle that forms a sling under/supports the tongue mylohyoideus
muscle that pulls hyoid aparatus rostrally geniohyoideus
cricothyroid m tenses the vocal fold
what nerve innervates the cricothyroid cr. laryngeal n.
muscles that close the glottis arytenoideus transversus m cricoarytenoideus lateralis m thyroarytenoideus m
muscles that close the glottis are innervated by what n cd. laryngeal n.
olfactory nerve runs transverse to what cribiform foramina of the ethmoid bone
where are the cell bodies for olfactory nerve olfactory epithelium. capable of regeneration
axons of the cranial nerve go where olfactory bulb (telencephalon)
optic nerve is surrounded by what muslce retractor bulbi m.
optic nerve exits the skull via optic canal
vision pathway 1. retina 2. optic nerve 3.optic chiasm 4.optic tract 5.later geniculate nucleus 6.optic radiation to occipital lobe
oculomotor nerve exits skull via orbital fissure
pre g. parasym from the oculomotor nerve synapse w/in ciliary ganglion.
post g. parasym from the oculomotor nerve supply ciliary and iris sphincter muscles
clinical signs of oculomotor dysfunction ventrolateral strabismus, ptosis of superior eyelid and mydriasis
pathway of pupillary light reflex 1.retina 2.optic nerve 3.optic chiasm 4.optic tract 5.pretectal nuclei (caudal commissure) 6. para.sym nucleus of CNIII 7.Ciliary ganglion 8.iris sphincter m.
pupil contraction pathway para sym. thoraco lumbar T1-L5
pupil dialation pathway sympathetic
trochlear nerve exits skull via orbital fissure. ONLY cr.n. to ori from dorsal aspect of brain
clinical signs of trochlear nerve dysfunction extorsion of eye
abducent nerve exits skulls via orbital fissure
clinical signs of abducent nerve dysfunction media strabismus
vestibulocochlear nerve exits the cranial cavity via internal acoustic meatus
where does the vestivulocochlear nerve terminate membranous labyrinth of inner ear
glossopharyngeal/ vagus nerve exits the cranial cavity via jugular foramen
glossopharyngeal/vagus nerve exits the skull via tympano-occipital fissure
location of proximal ganglion of vagus nerve jugular foramen
location of distal ganglion of vagus nerve caudal to the cranial cervical ganglion
para. sym of vagus nerve. location heart and smooth m., glands of digestive, respiratory
sensory fibers of vagus n. location digestive and respiratory. external auditory canal (auricular br)
motor fibers of vagus n. location pharynx, larynx
taste fibers of vagus n. location pharynx
accessory n. enters skull via foramen magnum
accessory n. exits skull via tympano occipital fissure
accessory n. exits cranial cavity via jugular foramen
accessory n. is motor innervation to what sternocephalicus, brachiocephalicus, omotransversarius. SOLE innervation to trapezius
hypoglossal n. exits cranial cavity via hypoglossal canal
hypoglossal n. travels w/ what artery lingual
conus medullaris narrow caudal end of the parenchyma of spinal cord
cauda equine sacral and caudal spinal roots stream caudally to exit at respective intervertebral foramina. Name for collective roots
what two places of the spinal cord are extra thick 1. cervical intumescence 2.lumbar intumescence
cervical intumescense location C6-T2
Lumbar intumescense location L4-S3
meninges covering of the brain and spinal cord
leptomeninges arachnoid and pia mater
epidural space dura mater and periosteum are separated, leaving a fat filled epidural space, deep to the yellow ligament
falx cerebri extends into longitudinal cerebral fissure
what does the falx cerebri contain dorsal sagittal sinus
tentorium cerebelli extends into transverse cerebral fissure
arachnoid lines deep surface of dura mater/
arachnoid trabeculae transverse subarachnoid space
what does the arachnoid trabeculae contain cerebrospinal fluid
pia mater attaches to the surface of the CNS.
where does the pia mater extend to sulci, fissures, crevices, etc
denticulate ligaments thickened logitudinal cord of pia on lateral margin of spinal cord. suspend spinal cord
deticulate ligaments attach to what dura and arachnoid.
filum terminale narrow cord of meninges that attaches nonus medullaris to cerebral vert.
choroid plexus compact mass of pia, capillaries, ependymal epithelium. present in each ventricle
what does the choroid plexus produce cerebral spinal fluid
CSF flow 1. choroid plexus 2.lateral ventricle 3.interventricular foramen 4.3rd ventricle 5. mesencephalic aqueduct 6.4th ventricle 7.lateral apertures or central canal 8.subarachnoid space 9. arachnoid villi 10. venous sinus
cranial venous sinuses empty into maxillary v, internal jugular v., vertebral v., ventral internal vertebral venous plexus
C1-C5 cranial to brachial plexus, caudal to brain
C6-T2 Majority of brachial plexus
T3-L3 b/w brachial plexus and lumbosacral plexus
L4-S3 Majority of lumbosacral plexus ori
CD1-CD5 caudal to lumbosacral plexus
Created by: ejohnson17



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