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Veterinary Nursing

Diagnostic Sampling and Therapeutic Techniques

QuestionAnswer
Abdominocentesis Surgical puncture of the abdomen by a needle to withdraw fluid; abdominal paracentesis.
Anorexia lack or loss of appetite for food (as a medical condition
Arthrocentesis diagnostic test performed to determine cause of joint swelling or arthritis: septic bursitis, gout, rheumatoid arthritis. (joint aspiration), the procedure uses a sterile needle and syringe to drain fluid from a joint for further examination
Coupage a technique that can be performed by veterinary staff and pet owners to help clear secretions from the lungs. Performed by striking the chest gently but firmly with cupped hands.
Cystocentesis procedure where a needle is placed into the urinary bladder through the abdomen of an animal and a sample of urine is removed. Diagnostically prevents sample taken for urinalysis contamination: bacteria, cells, debris from the lower urogenital tract.
Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) (Diagnostic peritoneal aspiration (DPA)) A surgical diagnostic procedure to determine if there is free floating fluid (most often blood) in the abdominal cavity.
Extravasation is the leakage of a fluid out of its container. In the case of inflammation, it refers to the movement of white blood cells from the capillaries to the tissues surrounding them (leukocyte "______"), also known as diapedesis.
Foley Catheter (named for Frederic Foley, who produced the original design in 1929) is a flexible tube that a clinician passes through the urethra and into the bladder to drain urine. It is the most common type of indwelling urinary catheter.
Intraosseous situated within, occurring within, or administered by entering a bone "_______" vasculature, "______" anesthesia.
Leukocytosis white cells (the leukocyte count) above normal range in the blood. Frequently a sign of an inflammatory response, most commonly infection, but may also occur following certain parasitic infections or bone tumors as well as leukemia.
Neutropenia a condition that results when the body does not have enough neutrophils, an important white blood cell that fights infections. Defined as an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) less than 1500 per microliter (1500/microL).
Osmolality the concentration of all solutes in a given weight of water and is expressed as units of either osmolality (milliosmoles of solute per kilogram of water, mOsm/kg H2O) or osmolarity (milliosmoles of solute per liter of water, mOsm/L H2O).
Pancytopenia deficiency of all three cellular components of the blood (red cells, white cells, and platelets).
Percutaneously made, done, or effected through the skin. "_____" needle biopsy
Phlebitis inflammation of a vein.
Pleural effusion “water on the lungs,” build-up of excess fluid between the layers of the pleura outside the lungs. The pleura are thin membranes that line the lungs and the inside of the chest cavity and act to lubricate and facilitate breathing.
Pneumothorax a collapsed lung. A pneumothorax occurs when air leaks into the space between your lung and chest wall. This air pushes on the outside of your lung and makes it collapse
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method widely used in molecular biology to make several copies of a specific DNA segment. Using it, copies of DNA sequences are exponentially amplified to generate thousands to millions of more copies of that particular DNA segment.
Rumen the first stomach of a ruminant, which receives food or cud from the esophagus, partly digests it with the aid of bacteria, and passes it to the reticulum.
Thoracocentesis an invasive procedure associated with removal of fluid or air from the pleural space for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes
Thrombocytopenia condition of low blood platelet count. Platelets (thrombocytes) are colorless blood cells that help blood clot. Platelets stop bleeding by clumping and forming plugs in blood vessel injuries
Thrombophlebitis due to one or more blood clots in a vein that cause inflammation. Usually occurs in leg veins, but it may occur in an arm.
Thrombosis the formation of a blood clot, known as a thrombus, within a blood vessel. It prevents blood from flowing normally through the circulatory system.
Vasodilation Widening of blood vessels. Results from relaxation of smooth muscle cells within the vessel walls, in particular in the large veins, large arteries, and smaller arterioles. Opposite of vasoconstriction, which is the narrowing of blood vessels.
Technician Note Pretreatment blood and urine samples should be obtained before administration of fluids of medications.
Technician Note Technicians should be adept at administering oral medication to animals and able to demonstrate techniques for pet owners.
orogastic intubation Length of stomach tub is measured from the nose to the 13th rib (last). It is marked with tape. For distal esophagus (smooth muscle) placement the tube is measured from the nose to the 8th rib. Tube is bent (occluded) before removal to avoid aspiration.
analgesics painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia (relief from pain).
Technician Note Upon orogastic intubation the animal will most likely swallow, if properly placed. If coughing occurs, the tube may have entered the trachea.
sclera the white outer layer of the eyeball. At the front of the eye it is continuous with the cornea.
percutaneously Any medical procedure or method where access to inner organs or other tissue is done via needle-puncture of the skin, rather than by using an "open" approach where inner organs or tissue are exposed (typically with the use of a scalpel).
Technician Note A facilitative incision or a relief hole reduces skin tension and friction against the catheter; it is indicated in severely dehydrated patients and in patients with tough skin.
winged needle (butterfly) a device used to access a vein for drawing blood or giving medications. Some call it a “winged infusion set” or a “scalp vein set.” The set gets its name because there are plastic “wings” on either side of a hollow needle used to access the vein.
through-the-needle catheter Hollow flexible tube for insertion into a body cavity, duct, or vessel. Uses: drainage of urine from the bladder through the urethra, insertion through a blood vessel into the heart for diagnostic purposes.
over-the-needle catheter The most common type of catheter used today. It is inexpensive and easy to place. It is used primarily for peripheral vein catheterization. This type of catheter is fitted outside or over a steel needle.
multilumen catheter a single catheter with more than one internal channel (called a lumen). A different intravenous infusion can be connected to each lumen, and the fluid will usually exit at a slightly different point along the catheter.
Procedure for placement of catheters gather a catheter, a syringe filled with heparinized saline flush, an injection cap or T-connector, tape, nonabsorbable suture, bandage material, clippers, and antiseptic scrub and solutions.
Technician Note Fluids and drugs that have an osmolality greater than 600 mOsm/L should be administered through the jugular vein.
antegrade Forward-moving. As in blood flow. Sometimes synonymous with anterograde. From the Latin ante- + gradior, to step.
Technician Note Placement of a bag of fluids, a sandbag, or rolled towels under the neck helps to make the vessel more accessible and stable for jugular catheter placement.
trocar a surgical instrument with a three-sided cutting point enclosed in a tube, used for withdrawing fluid from a body cavity
iodophor a preparation containing iodine complexed with a solubilizing agent, such as a surfactant or povidone (forming povidone-iodine). The result is a water-soluble material that releases free iodine when in solution
neoplasia the formation or presence of a new, abnormal growth of tissue.
vesicants an agent that causes blistering (outside a vessel?)
precipitate cause (an event or situation, typically one that is bad or undesirable) to happen suddenly, unexpectedly, or prematurely.
patency the condition of being open, expanded, or unobstructed.
extravasations leakage of a fluid out of its container. In the case of inflammation, it refers to the movement of white blood cells from the capillaries to the tissues surrounding them, also known as diapedesis
Technician Note Care should be taken to appropriately discard needles and catheters used in chemotherapeutic dosing.
Intraosseous administration the process of injecting directly into the marrow of a bone. This provides a non-collapsible entry point into the systemic venous system. This technique is used to provide fluids and medication when intravenous access is not available or not feasible
Created by: Raevyn1