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Veterinary A & P

Urinary System - Learning Objectives & Test Yourself Questions

List the three steps involved in performing a urinalysis. 1. A gross examination of the physical properties of the sample. 2. A chemical analysis of substances dissolved in the urine. 3. A microscopic examination of the solid components in the urine.
What are the six structures that make up the urinary system? two kidneys (make urine and carry out other vital functions), two ureters (carry urine to the urinary bladder), one urinary bladder (collects, stores, and releases urine), one urethra (conducts urine from the body)
Nitrogenous waste materials from protein breakdown are eliminated from the body primarily as what? urea
Define the term glomerular filtration is the process whereby a clear fluid, from which blood cells and macromolecules such as proteins are excluded, is produced from the blood perfusing the glomerulus at the beginning of each nephron
Define the term renal threshold renal threshold is the concentration of a substance dissolved in the blood above which the kidneys begin to remove it into the urine.
Define the term polyuria is excessive or an abnormally large production or passage of urine. Frequent urination is usually an accompanying symptom.
Define the term polydipsia abnormally great thirst as a symptom of disease (such as diabetes) or psychological disturbance.
Define the term urolithiasis the formation of stony concretions in the bladder or urinary tract
Define the term uremia a raised level in the blood of urea and other nitrogenous waste compounds that are normally eliminated by the kidneys
Name one hormone whose release is regulated by the kidney, one hormone that directly affects kidney function, and one hormone produced by the kidney. Antidiuretic hormone and aldosterone: regulated by the kidney Antidiuretic hormone and aldosterone: affects kidney function Erythropoietin and prostaglandin: produced by kidney
What is the difference between the hilus of the kidney and the renal pelvis? the hilus is the area where blood and lymph vessels, nerves and the ureters enter and leave the kidney. The renal pelvis is the funnel shaped area inside the hilus. It is the urine collection chamber that forms the beginning of the ureter.
What is meant by the term retroperitoneal? They are outside the parietal peritoneum (between the peritoneum and the dorsal abdominal muscles). Outside the abdominal cavity.
List, in order, the parts of the nephron. Indicate whether each specific part is found in the cortex or the medulla. renal corpuscle (in the cortex), proximal convoluted tubule (in the cortex), loop of Henle (descends into the medulla and returns to the cortex), and distal convoluted tubule (in the cortex)
What is the difference between glomerular filtrate and tubular filtrate? glomerular filtrate is plasma that has been filtered out of the glomerular capillaries and into the capsular space. Tubular filtrate is glomerular filtrate after it has passed into the proximal convoluted tubule.
What is the function of the brush border on the epithelial cells of the proximal convoluted tubule? The brush border increases the cellular surface area exposed to the fluid in the tubule by a factor of about 20. This is especially important to the PCT's reabsorption and secretion functions.
How does the blood in the efferent glomerular arteriole differ from the blood in the afferent glomerular arteriole? The afferent arteriole brings blood to the glomerulus and the efferent arteriole carries blood away from the glomerulus.
What is the difference between tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion? they are opposite
How does ADH deficiency affect urine volume? What is the mechanism? Water will not be reabsorbed and will be lost in the urine. This results in increased urine volume (polyuria). ADH acts on the DCT and collecting ducts to promote water reabsorption.
What is the mechanism by which glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed out of the proximal convoluted tubule and back into the body? Glucose, amino acids and other substances diffuse out of the epithelial cell down their concentration gradients on passive transporters and are then reabsorbed by the blood capillaries.
Explain the concept of the renal threshold of glucose. the proximal convoluted tubules can absorb a limit amount of glucose. The excess is lost in urine.
Explain why proteinuria occurs with renal failure. the glomerular fenestrations become larger than normal and allow larger molecules, like protein, to pass into the tubular filtrate.
Why are clinical signs of renal failure not observed until the disease process is advanced? The kidneys are able to compensate and continue adequately to remove enough waste products from the blood, even working at decreased capacity until two thirds of nephrons have been lost.
Diabetes insipidus gets its name from what physical characteristic of urine produced by patients with the disease? the lack of glucose in the urine (tasteless)
How do the kidneys respond to a decrease in blood pressure? the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system responds to bring it back to normal level.
Why is it important that the ureters have an inner lining of transitional epithelium? It allows them to stretch as urine is passed through them on its way to the urinary bladder
What prevents urine from backing up into the ureters when the bladder wall contracts to expel urine? Being at such an oblique angle, the bladder collapses the opening of the ureter when it is full.
The ureter is continuous with what structure in the kidney (except in cattle)? calyces
How does the bladder know when to empty itself? When the trigger point is reached, a spinal reflex is activated that returns a motor impulse to the detrusor muscle and the smooth muscle of the bladder wall contracts. These contractions are responsible for the sensation of having to urinate
What part of the urinary bladder is under voluntary control and allows an animal to be housebroken? muscular sphincter around the neck of the bladder
Does urine production stop when the urinary bladder is full? no, it is continuous.
Besides its urinary function, what other function does the urethra play in a male animal? reproductive function. The vas deferens and accessory reproductive glands enter the urethra as it passes through the pelvic canal. Here spermatozoa and seminal fluid are discharged in to the urethra during ejaculation and are pumped out as semen.
How much kidney function must be destroyed before clinical signs of renal dysfunction become evident? Until 2/3 or about 67% of the nephrons have been lost
Explain the difference between prerenal uremia and postrenal uremia. prerenal uremia is associated with decreased blood flow to the kidneys and postrenal uremia is associated with an obstruction
What is a urolith? S0ome mineral solutes precipitate to form crystals in urine; these crystals may aggregate and grow to macroscopic size, at which time they are known as uroliths (calculi or stones).
Name two conditions that can predispose an animal to urolith production. diet or urinary tract infection
How do uroliths in cats differ from uroliths in other species? they are much smaller and resemble sand rather than stones. when it clumps together it forms a gelatinous plug with a gritty, toothpaste consistency
What is the chemical composition of a struvite crystal? magnesium, ammonium, and phosphate
The urinary system's chief function? Excretion- to regulate the volume and composition of body fluids and excrete unwanted material.
Other systems that share similar functions to the urinary system? Integumentary: (skin-sweat glands) Nitrogen compounds, electrolytes, water Respiratory: (lungs) Carbon dioxide, water Digestive: (Intestines) Digestive wastes, bile pigments, salts of heavy metals
Physical properties of urine to be evaluated volume, color, odor, transparency, and specific gravity
Possible urinary system conditions that a urinalysis can uncover infections, crystalluria, urinary calculi, diabetes mellitus, etc
What functions do the kidneys perform to maintain body homeostasis? blood filtration, reabsorption, secretion, fluid balance regulation (diuresis, oliguria, anuria) by hormones: antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and aldosterone, acid-base balance regulation, hormone production (erythropoietin, prostaglandins), BP regulation.
Describe the hilus of a kidney the area (indent) where blood and lymph vessels, nerves, and the ureters enter and leave the kidney
Define renal pelvis a urine collection chamber that forms the beginning of the ureter. It is lined with transitional epithelium: capable of considerable stretching without being damaged.
What is the medulla The inner portion of the kidney around the renal pelvis. It has a smooth appearance with a dark purple outer area that sends rays up into the cortex and a pale, gray-red inner area that extends down to the renal pelvis
Renal cortex outer portion of the kidney. It is reddish brown with a granular appearance
nephron the basic functional unit of the kidney
Renal corpuscle? made up of the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule. Its function is to filter blood in the first stage of urine production
Glomerulus? a tuft of glomerular capillaries
Bowman's capsule? a double-walled capsule that surrounds the glomerulus. Outer layer is called the parietal layer. The visceral layer of Bowman's capsule is made up of podocytes (foot cells)
Podocytes? "foot cells" have foot-like extensions that cover the glomerular capillaries. There are spaces between them, creating a permeable layer through which fluid and dissolved substances can pass during filtration.
Capsular space? space between the visceral and parietal layers of podocytes. Continuous with the proximal convoluted tubule
Glomerular filtrate fluid that is filtered out of blood
Proximal convoluted tubule? a continuation of the capsular space of Bowman's capsule. The longest part of the tubular system of the nephron.
distal convoluted tubule? is a continuation of the ascending part of the loop of Henle. It follows a twisting path through the cortex
Collecting ducts (tubules) Where the distal convoluted tubules empty. Carry tubular filtrate through the medulla into the calyces, which lead to the renal pelvis. Primary action site of antidiuretic hormone (ADH). Potassium regulation and acid-base balance control also happen here.
Renal artery Branches off the abdominal portion of the aorta. Enters the kidney through the hilus, divides and subdivides into smaller arteries and arterioles until it becomes a series of afferent glomerular arterioles.
afferent glomerular arterioles carry blood into the glomerular capillaries of the renal corpuscle
glomerular capillaries Continuation of the afferent arterioles. Filter some plasma out of blood, which enters the capsular space of Bowman's capsule, it is known as the glomerular filtrate. The rest of the blood leaves the glomerulus entering the efferent glomerular arterioles.
efferent glomerular arterioles Divide into a network of capillaries that surround the rest of the nephron. These capillaries are known as the peritubular capillaries.
peritubular capillaries Oxygen transfer to the cells of the nephron takes place here. Substances are also taken out of the tubular filtrate and put back into the blood: tubular reabsorption. Converge to form venules that become larger veins and eventually the renal vein
tubular secretion other substances are secreted from the blood into the tubules at this level
renal vein leaves the kidneys at the hilus and joins the abdominal portion of the caudal vena cava. Blood here is the purest found in the body.
What two levels will be high in renal (kidney) failure BUN & CREA
juxtaglomerular cells Found within the afferent glomerular arterioles are specialized cells that constantly monitor blood pressure within the arterioles. If they detect a decrease in blood pressure they will respond by releasing renin.
macula densa a group of densely packed cells within the ascending limb of the loop of Henle that monitors the NaCl concentration of the tubular filtrate.
Renin an enzyme that facilitates the splitting of angiotensin I from angiotensin.
Created by: Raevyn1



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