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Veterinary A & P

Alimentary Tract/Digestive System - Test Yourself Questions

QuestionAnswer
What is the primary diet of a carnivore, omnivore, and an herbivore? Meat, plant materials and meat, plants
What are two species of animal that require microbial fermentation to digest their food? horse and cattle
What is the purpose of the stratified squamous epithelium that lines much of the GI tract? The many layered stratified squamous epithelium provide protection.
How many layers of muscle make up the muscular layer of the wall of the intestines? Two smooth muscle layers, an inner circular and an outer longitudinal one.
What are the two nerve plexuses that make up the intrinsic enteric nervous system? submucosal plexus (Meissner's)- locaton: submucosa- controls secretions and blood flow. myenteric plexus (Auerbach's)- location: between circular and longitutinal layers of smooth muscle-important in controlling movement through local reflexes.
What are the two parts of the roof of the mouth? hard palate and soft palate
The part of the tooth that sticks out above the gum line is the ___. It is covered with ___. crown, enamel
What substance makes up the bulk of a tooth? dentin
Where is the occlusal surface of a tooth? (masticatory) the surfaces on the upper and lower teeth that come together when the mouth is closed
What type of tooth will continue to grow throughout the life of an animal? hypsodont
What are the four types of tooth that make up heterodont dentition? incisors, canines, premolars, molars
What numeric system is used to assign a specific number to each tooth in the mouth? Triadan system
The majority of the tongue is made up of what type of tissue? muscle
Besides water, list three substances found in saliva. proteins, electrolytes, antibodies, plus glycoproteins, salivary bicarbonate, and enzymes.
What are three primary salivary glands in a dog? parotid, mandibular, sublingual
What does TMJ mean? temporomandibular joint
When speaking of the movement of the mandible, what is translation? the movement of the mandible to the side (laterally) and forward (rostrally)
What is the structure that covers the opening of the trachea when an animal is swallowing food? epiglottis
How many muscle layers are found in the esophagus? Which direction do the fibers run in each layer? two, circular and longitudinal
Which of the three phases of swallowing is under conscious control? Stage One: the tongue pushes the bolus toward the pharynx
What is the proper medical term for the throat? pharynx
What happens during prehension? During deglutination? During mastication? 1)teeth, tongue, lips, and movement of head and jaws (noses root in pigs) help in getting food into the mouth, 2)swallowing the bolus involves 3)lips, cheeks, tongue, teeth, and jaw mix the food with saliva to lubricate and soften food (chewing)
What is the name of the pattern of muscular contractions and dilations that moves food forward through the esophagus and other parts of the digestive system? Peristalsis
The serous membrane that covers the organs of the abdominal cavity is the ___? visceral peritoneum
The connecting peritoneum that links the stomach to the abdominal wall is the ___? omentum
Semiliquid, partially digested food that leaves the stomach and enters the duodenum is ___? chyme
What are the four sections of a monogastric stomach? cardia, fundus, body (corpus), pylorus,
What proteolytic enzyme in the stomach begins protein digestion? Pepsin
What three actions result from acetylcholine release during the cephalic phase of gastric secretion? parietal cells secrete hydrogen and chloride ions, chief cells secrete pepsinogen into the stomach, and G cells secrete gastrin into the blood stream
Which neurotransmitter, released by sympathetic neurons, causes a reduction in the frequency of smooth muscle contractions in the stomach? norepinephrine
What part of the monogastric stomach increases in size to accommodate a large meal? fundus
What nerve can elicit opposite types of gastric movement through the release of different neurotransmitters in the myenteric plexus? vagus nerve
List three conditions in the duodenum that can decrease the rate of gastric emptying. high concentrations of peptides or fat breakdown products, osmolarity of chyme, and duodenal distention in the presence of chyme
What are the two types of digestion that take place in the stomach? mechanical digestion and chemical digestion
Repeating units of monosaccharides make up ___? carbohydrates
List the four chambers that make up the ruminant stomach. Reticulum, rumen, omasum, abomasum
Which of the four chambers is the largest fermentation chamber and on which side of the animal would you look to see whether it was bloated? Rumen, left
Which chamber is known as the many plies? omasum
What is the importance of the esophageal groove? links the esophagus with the omasum. A role crucial to young ruminants. The esophageal groove folds in and essentially forms a tube for milk to travel directly to the omasum and abomasum, bypassing the reticulum and rumen.
Explain the difference between eructation and rumination? eructation is the release of gases produced during fermentation: carbon dioxide and methane. rumination(chewing the cud): regurgitation (reverse peristalsis) of food from the reticulorumen into the oral cavity for further mastication and re-insalivation.
What does a cow do when she chews her cud? regurgitation, re-insalivation, re-mastication, and re-swallowing
The main source of energy in ruminants is the production of ___? volatile fatty acids (VFA)
In the reticulorumen complex carbohydrates are broken down to ___ or ___? monosaccharides or polysaccharides
What are the three most important volatile fatty acids produced by conversion from the pyruvate? acetic acid (acetate), propionic acid (propionate), and butyric acid (butyrate)
Lipids are found in grasses and plants in the form of (three compounds)? triglycerides, glycolipids, free fatty acids
Proteins in ruminant diets are broken down extracellularly by peptidase into ___? small peptide chains
Urea produced as a by-product of amino acid metabolism in the ruminant liver goes to the ___ for reuse. saliva/microbes
What is gluconeogenesis and where in the ruminant does it mostly take place? production of glucose by the liver from noncarbohydrate sources
List, in order as they leave the stomach, the three sections of the small intestine. duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What is the brush border in relation to the small intestine, and what is its function? site of terminal carbohydrate digestions. The microvilli that constitute these structures have enzymes for this final part of digestion anchored into their apical plasma membrane as integral membrane proteins.
What characteristics of chyme are necessary to stimulate the release of cholecystokinin (CCK)? an increase in fatty or acidic chyme entering the duodenum
Which hormone, released in the duodenum, is responsible for decreased hydrochloric acid production in the stomach? secretin
What substance, released by the pancreas and liver into the duodenum, helps neutralize the acidic chyme leaving the stomach? cholecystokinin
What are two substances secreted by the exocrine portion of the pancreas? digestive enzymes and bicarbonate
What three structures are found in the triad located at the periphery of a hepatic lobule? bile ducts, hepatic artery, and hepatic portal vein
What is the function of Kupffer cells? macrophages attached to the inner surface of the sinusoids which engulf foreign substances.
Where does the common bile duct enter the small intestine? directly or at the major papillae. The sphincter of Oddi controls entrance of the bile duct into the duodenum
What common species of domestic animal does not have a gallbladder? horses
What is enterohepatic circulation? the pathway for bile from the liver to the intestines to the hepatic portal vein back to the liver
Unconjugated bilirubin in blood is not water soluble. How does it become water soluble? bilirubin in conjugated (joined) to glucuronic acid, in the hepatocyte, to form bilirubin glucuronide or conjugated bilirubin, which is water soluble
The major storage form of glucose is ___? glycogen
How are triglycerides in adipose tissue converted into glucose for energy? enzymatically with lipase
Which plasma protein produced in the liver plays a crucial role in fluid movement between plasma and interstitial fluid? albumin
Which movement in the small intestine propels intestinal content toward the rectum? mass movements
In the luminal phase of the chemical digestion of starches, which enzyme secreted by the pancreas, is needed? alpha-amylase
In the membranous phase of chemical digestion of sugars, where are the necessary enzymes located? brush border
What is an exopeptidase? break proteins at the end of the polypeptide chains, resulting in smaller peptide chains. It yields free amino acids.
Both glucose and amino acids are brought into a cell through secondary active transport. What does this mean? across a biological membrane in which a transporter protein couples the movement of an ion (typically Na+ or H+) down its electrochemical gradient to the uphill movement of another molecule or ion against a concentration/electrochemical gradient
List the four parts of the large intestine. cecum, colon, rectum, anus
Which species of large animal is a hindgut fermenter? a horse
Name a common species of animal that has a short ascending colon. cat
What is the purpose of the sacculations? they prolong the time during which the contents stay in the large intestine by creating extra volume. This allows more time for absorption and microbial digestion.
What are the four movements associated with the large intestine? segmentation, peristalsis, antiperistalsis, mass movement
How are feces formed? water and ions are removed from the ingesta, leaving semisolid material
Cholecystokinin (endocrine hormone) inhibits gastric emptying
Gastrin (endocrine hormone) stimulates stomach motility
Endocrine cells secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream and have their effect at a distant site.
Paracrine cells secrete substances into the interstitial fluid, which then travels by diffusion and affect nearby cells.
buccal cavity contains the teeth, tongue, and everything else required to ingest food
vestibule the space between the outer surface of the teeth and the surrounding lips and cheeks
oral cavity (proper) the space bordered by the inner surface of the teeth laterally and rostrally and by the hard and soft palate dorsally
odontoplasty the process of recontouring a tooth surface
pancreatic function endocrine portion: produces various hormones and deposits them directly into the bloodstream, and exocrine portion: produces digestive proenzymes that are deposited through a duct into the duodenum.
Peyer's Patches small masses of lymphatic tissue throughout the ileum Also known as aggregated lymphoid nodules: form an important part of the immune system by monitoring intestinal bacteria populations and preventing the growth of pathogenic bacteria in the intestines.
Created by: Raevyn1